Carbohydrates

Carbohydrates

 

Carbohydrates

A carbohydrate is an organic compound,they are major source of energy,In biochemistry,it is called synonym of saccharide.

composition

 that consists only of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, usually with a hydrogen:oxygen atom ratio of 2:1

shape

They are polyhydroxy shape.

Groups of carbohydrates (saccharides)

The carbohydrates (saccharides) are divided into four chemical groupings:
1)  monosaccharides,
2) disaccharides,
3)oligosaccharides, and
4)polysaccharides.

Role of carbohydrates

Carbohydrates perform numerous roles in living organisms.

1)Monosaccharides

Monosaccharides are the major source of fuel for metabolism, being used both as an energy source (glucose being the most important in nature)

2)Disaccharide

Sucrose, also known as table sugar, is a common disaccharide. It is composed of two monosaccharides.

4)Oligosaccarides

The three saccrides join to form oligosaccarides.

3)polysaccharides

 Polysaccharides serve for the storage of energy (e.g., starch and glycogen).

Storge of carbohydrates

 In many animals, including humans, this storage form is glycogen, especially in liver and muscle cells,but storage of liver is limited so any unused carbohydrate is converted
into fats.

Source of carbohydrates

Foods high in carbohydrate include fruits, sweets, soft drinks, breads, pastas, beans, potatoes, bran, rice, and cereals. Carbohydrates are a common source of energy in living organisms; however, no carbohydrate is an essential nutrient in humans.

                           when 1 gram of carbohydrate is fully oxidized it
produce about 17 kilojoules of energy.

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