What is Frequency Modulation?
Mathematically, it is given as:
The term Kf represents the frequency sensitivity of the modulator expressed in Hz/V.
How Frequency Modulation Works?
This variation in carrier frequency is known as "deviation". It is expressed in kHz per Volt. The deviation of a carrier in frequency is directly proportional to the Audio modulating signal's loudness.
Frequency Modulation Equation
The instantaneous frequency is given by the equation
On differentiating the above equation, we get
Putting the value of
Putting this value of
c(t) = A cos [