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6

What do the kidneys do?

 KIDNEY

The kidneys are a pair of vital organs that perform many functions to keep the blood clean and chemically balanced. Understanding how the kidneys work can help a person keep them healthy
.

What do the kidneys do?

The kidneys are bean-shaped organs, each about the size of a fist. They are located near the middle of the back, just below the rib cage, one on each side of the spine. The kidneys are sophisticated reprocessing machines. Every day, a person's kidneys process about 200 quarts of blood to sift out about 2 quarts of waste products and extra water. The wastes and extra water become urine, which flows to the bladder through tubes called ureters. The bladder stores urine until releasing it through urination.

Wastes in the blood come from the normal breakdown of active tissues, such as muscles, and from food. The body uses food for energy and self-repairs. After the body has taken what it needs from food, wastes are sent to the blood. If the kidneys did not remove them, these wastes would build up in the blood and damage the body.
The actual removal of wastes occurs in tiny units inside the kidneys called nephrons. Each kidney has about a million nephrons. In the nephron, a glomerulus-which is a tiny blood vessel, or capillary-intertwines with a tiny urine-collecting tube called a tubule. The glomerulus acts as a filtering unit, or sieve, and keeps normal proteins and cells in the bloodstream, allowing extra fluid and wastes to pass through. A complicated chemical exchange takes place, as waste materials and water leave the blood and enter the urinary system.
            
At first, the tubules receive a combination of waste materials and chemicals the body can still use. The kidneys measure out chemicals like sodium, phosphorus, and potassium and release them back to the blood to return to the body. In this way, the kidneys regulate the body's level of these substances. The right balance is necessary for life.
In addition to removing wastes, the kidneys release three important hormones:
  • erythropoietin, or EPO, which stimulates the bone marrow to make red blood cells
  • renin, which regulates blood pressure
  • calcitriol, the active form of vitamin D, which helps maintain calcium for bones and for normal chemical balance in the body

What is renal function?

The word "renal" refers to the kidneys. The terms "renal function" and "kidney function" mean the same thing. Health professionals use the term "renal function" to talk about how efficiently the kidneys filter blood. People with two healthy kidneys have 100 percent of their kidney function. Small or mild declines in kidney function-as much as 30 to 40 percent-would rarely be noticeable. Kidney function is now calculated using a blood sample and a formula to find the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). The eGFR corresponds to the percent of kidney function available.
Some people are born with only one kidney but can still lead normal, healthy lives. Every year, thousands of people donate one of their kidneys for transplantation to a family member or friend.
For many people with reduced kidney function, a kidney disease is also present and will get worse. Serious health problems occur when people have less than 25 percent of their kidney function. When kidney function drops below 10 to 15 percent, a person needs some form of renal replacement therapy—either blood-cleansing treatments called dialysis or a kidney transplant-to sustain life.

Why do kidneys fail?

Most kidney diseases attack the nephrons, causing them to lose their filtering capacity. Damage to the nephrons can happen quickly, often as the result of injury or poisoning. But most kidney diseases destroy the nephrons slowly and silently. Only after years or even decades will the damage become apparent. Most kidney diseases attack both kidneys simultaneously.
The two most common causes of kidney disease are diabetes and high blood pressure. People with a family history of any kind of kidney problem are also at risk for kidney disease.


Diabetic Kidney Disease

Diabetes is a disease that keeps the body from using glucose, a form of sugar, as it should. If glucose stays in the blood instead of breaking down, it can act like a poison. Damage to the nephrons from unused glucose in the blood is called diabetic kidney disease. Keeping blood glucose levels down can delay or prevent diabetic kidney disease. Use of medications called angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) to treat high blood pressure can also slow or delay the progression of diabetic kidney disease.

High Blood Pressure

High blood pressure can damage the small blood vessels in the kidneys. The damaged vessels cannot filter wastes from the blood as they are supposed to.
A doctor may prescribe blood pressure medication. ACE inhibitors and ARBs have been found to protect the kidneys even more than other medicines that lower blood pressure to similar levels. The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI), one of the National Institutes of Health, recommends that people with diabetes or reduced kidney function keep their blood pressure below 130/80.

Glomerular Diseases

Several types of kidney disease are grouped together under this category, including autoimmune diseases, infection-related diseases, and sclerotic diseases. As the name indicates, glomerular diseases attack the tiny blood vessels, or glomeruli, within the kidney. The most common primary glomerular diseases include membranous nephropathy, IgA nephropathy, and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. The first sign of a glomerular disease is often proteinuria, which is too much protein in the urine. Another common sign is hematuria, which is blood in the urine. Some people may have both proteinuria and hematuria. Glomerular diseases can slowly destroy kidney function. Blood pressure control is important with any kidney disease. Glomerular diseases are usually diagnosed with a biopsy—a procedure that involves taking a piece of kidney tissue for examination with a microscope. Treatments for glomerular diseases may include immunosuppressive drugs or steroids to reduce inflammation and proteinuria, depending on the specific disease.

Inherited and Congenital Kidney Diseases

Some kidney diseases result from hereditary factors. Polycystic kidney disease (PKD), for example, is a genetic disorder in which many cysts grow in the kidneys. PKD cysts can slowly replace much of the mass of the kidneys, reducing kidney function and leading to kidney failure.
Some kidney problems may show up when a child is still developing in the womb. Examples include autosomal recessive PKD, a rare form of PKD, and other developmental problems that interfere with the normal formation of the nephrons. The signs of kidney disease in children vary. A child may grow unusually slowly, vomit often, or have back or side pain. Some kidney diseases may be silent-causing no signs or symptoms-for months or even years.
If a child has a kidney disease, the child’s doctor should find it during a regular checkup. The first sign of a kidney problem may be high blood pressure; a low number of red blood cells, called anemia; proteinuria; or hematuria. If the doctor finds any of these problems, further tests may be necessary, including additional blood and urine tests or radiology studies. In some cases, the doctor may need to perform a biopsy.
Some hereditary kidney diseases may not be detected until adulthood. The most common form of PKD was once called "adult PKD" because the symptoms of high blood pressure and renal failure usually do not occur until patients are in their twenties or thirties. But with advances in diagnostic imaging technology, doctors have found cysts in children and adolescents before any symptoms appear.

Other Causes of Kidney Disease

Poisons and trauma, such as a direct and forceful blow to the kidneys, can lead to kidney disease.
Some over-the-counter medicines can be poisonous to the kidneys if taken regularly over a long period of time. Anyone who takes painkillers regularly should check with a doctor to make sure the kidneys are not at risk.

How do kidneys fail?

Many factors that influence the speed of kidney failure are not completely understood. Researchers are still studying how protein in the diet and cholesterol levels in the blood affect kidney function.

Acute Kidney Injury

Some kidney problems happen quickly, such as when an accident injures the kidneys. Losing a lot of blood can cause sudden kidney failure. Some drugs or poisons can make the kidneys stop working. These sudden drops in kidney function are called acute kidney injury (AKI). Some doctors may also refer to this condition as acute renal failure (ARF).
AKI may lead to permanent loss of kidney function. But if the kidneys are not seriously damaged, acute kidney disease may be reversed.

Chronic Kidney Disease

Most kidney problems, however, happen slowly. A person may have "silent" kidney disease for years. Gradual loss of kidney function is called chronic kidney disease (CKD) or chronic renal insufficiency. People with CKD may go on to develop permanent kidney failure. They also have a high risk of death from a stroke or heart attack.

End-stage Renal Disease

Total or nearly total and permanent kidney failure is called end-stage renal disease (ESRD). People with ESRD must undergo dialysis or transplantation to stay alive.


What are the signs of chronic kidney disease (CKD)?

People in the early stages of CKD usually do not feel sick at all.
People whose kidney disease has gotten worse may
  • need to urinate more often or less often
  • feel tired
  • lose their appetite or experience nausea and vomiting
  • have swelling in their hands or feet
  • feel itchy or numb
  • get drowsy or have trouble concentrating
  • have darkened skin
  • have muscle cramps

What medical tests detect kidney disease?

Because a person can have kidney disease without any symptoms, a doctor may first detect the condition through routine blood and urine tests. The National Kidney Foundation recommends three simple tests to screen for kidney disease: a blood pressure measurement, a spot check for protein or albumin in the urine, and a calculation of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) based on a serum creatinine measurement. Measuring urea nitrogen in the blood provides additional information.

Blood Pressure Measurement

High blood pressure can lead to kidney disease. It can also be a sign that the kidneys are already impaired. The only way to know whether a person's blood pressure is high is to have a health professional measure it with a blood pressure cuff. The result is expressed as two numbers. The top number, which is called the systolic pressure, represents the pressure in the blood vessels when the heart is beating. The bottom number, which is called the diastolic pressure, shows the pressure when the heart is resting between beats. A person's blood pressure is considered normal if it stays below 120/80, stated as "120 over 80." The NHLBI recommends that people with kidney disease use whatever therapy is necessary, including lifestyle changes and medicines, to keep their blood pressure below 130/80.

Microalbuminuria and Proteinuria

Healthy kidneys take wastes out of the blood but leave protein. Impaired kidneys may fail to separate a blood protein called albumin from the wastes. At first, only small amounts of albumin may leak into the urine, a condition known as microalbuminuria, a sign of deteriorating kidney function. As kidney function worsens, the amount of albumin and other proteins in the urine increases, and the condition is called proteinuria. A doctor may test for protein using a dipstick in a small sample of a person's urine taken in the doctor's office. The color of the dipstick indicates the presence or absence of proteinuria.
A more sensitive test for protein or albumin in the urine involves laboratory measurement and calculation of the protein-to-creatinine or albumin-to-creatinine ratio. Creatinine is a waste product in the blood created by the normal breakdown of muscle cells during activity. Healthy kidneys take creatinine out of the blood and put it into the urine to leave the body. When the kidneys are not working well, creatinine builds up in the blood.
The albumin-to-creatinine measurement should be used to detect kidney disease in people at high risk, especially those with diabetes or high blood pressure. If a person's first laboratory test shows high levels of protein, another test should be done 1 to 2 weeks later. If the second test also shows high levels of protein, the person has persistent proteinuria and should have additional tests to evaluate kidney function.

Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR) Based on Creatinine Measurement

GFR is a calculation of how efficiently the kidneys are filtering wastes from the blood. A traditional GFR calculation requires an injection into the bloodstream of a substance that is later measured in a 24-hour urine collection. Recently, scientists found they could calculate GFR without an injection or urine collection. The new calculation-the eGFR-requires only a measurement of the creatinine in a blood sample.
In a laboratory, a person's blood is tested to see how many milligrams of creatinine are in one deciliter of blood (mg/dL). Creatinine levels in the blood can vary, and each laboratory has its own normal range, usually 0.6 to 1.2 mg/dL. A person whose creatinine level is only slightly above this range will probably not feel sick, but the elevation is a sign that the kidneys are not working at full strength. One formula for estimating kidney function equates a creatinine level of 1.7 mg/dL for most men and 1.4 mg/dL for most women to 50 percent of normal kidney function. But because creatinine values are so variable and can be affected by diet, a GFR calculation is more accurate for determining whether a person has reduced kidney function.
The eGFR calculation uses the patient's creatinine measurement along with age and values assigned for sex and race. Some medical laboratories may make the eGFR calculation when a creatinine value is measured and include it on the lab report. The National Kidney Foundation has determined different stages of CKD based on the value of the eGFR. Dialysis or transplantation is needed when the eGFR is less than 15 milliliters per minute (mL/min).

Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN)

Blood carries protein to cells throughout the body. After the cells use the protein, the remaining waste product is returned to the blood as urea, a compound that contains nitrogen. Healthy kidneys take urea out of the blood and put it in the urine. If a person's kidneys are not working well, the urea will stay in the blood.
A deciliter of normal blood contains 7 to 20 milligrams of urea. If a person's BUN is more than 20 mg/dL, the kidneys may not be working at full strength. Other possible causes of an elevated BUN include dehydration and heart failure.

Additional Tests for Kidney Disease

If blood and urine tests indicate reduced kidney function, a doctor may recommend additional tests to help identify the cause of the problem.
Kidney imaging. Methods of kidney imaging-taking pictures of the kidneys-include ultrasound, computerized tomography (CT) scan, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). These tools are most helpful in finding unusual growths or blockages to the flow of urine.
Kidney biopsy. A doctor may want to examine a tiny piece of kidney tissue with a microscope. To obtain this tissue sample, the doctor will perform a kidney biopsy-a hospital procedure in which the doctor inserts a needle through the patient's skin into the back of the kidney. The needle retrieves a strand of tissue less than an inch long. For the procedure, the patient lies facedown on a table and receives a local anesthetic to numb the skin. The sample tissue will help the doctor identify problems at the cellular level.
For more information, see the fact sheet Kidney Biopsy from the National Kidney and Urologic Diseases Information Clearinghouse.
 

What are the stages of CKD?

A person's eGFR is the best indicator of how well the kidneys are working. An eGFR of 90 or above is considered normal. A person whose eGFR stays below 60 for 3 months or longer has CKD. As kidney function declines, the risk of complications rises.
Moderate decrease in eGFR (30 to 59). At this stage of CKD, hormones and minerals can be thrown out of balance, leading to anemia and weak bones. A health care provider can help prevent or treat these complications with medicines and advice about food choices.
Severe reduction in eGFR (15 to 29). The patient should continue following the treatment for complications of CKD and learn as much as possible about the treatments for kidney failure. Each treatment requires preparation. Those who choose hemodialysis will need to have a procedure to make veins in their arms larger and stronger for repeated needle insertions. For peritoneal dialysis, one will need to have a catheter placed in the abdomen. A catheter is a thin, flexible tube used to fill the abdominal cavity with fluid. A person may want to ask family or friends to consider donating a kidney for transplantation.
Kidney failure (eGFR less than 15). When the kidneys do not work well enough to maintain life, dialysis or a kidney transplant will be needed.
In addition to tracking eGFR, blood tests can show when substances in the blood are out of balance. If phosphorus or potassium levels start to climb, a blood test will prompt the health care provider to address these issues before they permanently affect the person's health.


What can be done about CKD?

Unfortunately, CKD often cannot be cured. But people in the early stages of CKD may be able to make their kidneys last longer by taking certain steps. They will also want to minimize the risks for heart attack and stroke because CKD patients are susceptible to these problems.
  • People with reduced kidney function should see their doctor regularly. The primary doctor may refer the patient to a nephrologist, a doctor who specializes in kidney disease.
  • People who have diabetes should watch their blood glucose levels closely to keep them under control. They should ask their health care provider about the latest in treatment.
  • People with reduced renal function should avoid pain pills that may make their kidney disease worse. They should check with their health care provider before taking any medicine.

Controlling Blood Pressure

People with reduced kidney function and high blood pressure should control their blood pressure with an ACE inhibitor or an ARB. Many people will require two or more types of medication to keep their blood pressure below 130/80. A diuretic is an important addition when the ACE inhibitor or ARB does not meet the blood pressure goal.

Changing the Diet

People with reduced kidney function need to be aware that some parts of a normal diet may speed their kidney failure.
Protein. Protein is important to the body. It helps the body repair muscles and fight disease. Protein comes mostly from meat but can also be found in eggs, milk, nuts, beans, and other foods. Healthy kidneys take wastes out of the blood but leave in the protein. Impaired kidneys may fail to separate the protein from the wastes.
Some doctors tell their kidney patients to limit the amount of protein they eat so the kidneys have less work to do. But a person cannot avoid protein entirely. People with CKD can work with a dietitian to create the right food plan.
Cholesterol. Another problem that may be associated with kidney failure is high cholesterol. High levels of cholesterol in the blood may result from a high-fat diet.
Cholesterol can build up on the inside walls of blood vessels. The buildup makes pumping blood through the vessels harder for the heart and can cause heart attacks and strokes.
Sodium. Sodium is a chemical found in salt and other foods. Sodium in the diet may raise a person's blood pressure, so people with CKD should limit foods that contain high levels of sodium. High-sodium foods include canned or processed foods like frozen dinners and hot dogs.
Potassium. Potassium is a mineral found naturally in many fruits and vegetables, such as oranges, potatoes, bananas, dried fruits, dried beans and peas, and nuts. Healthy kidneys measure potassium in the blood and remove excess amounts. Diseased kidneys may fail to remove excess potassium. With very poor kidney function, high potassium levels can affect the heart rhythm.

Not Smoking

Smoking not only increases the risk of kidney disease, but it also contributes to deaths from strokes and heart attacks in people with CKD.

Treating Anemia

Anemia is a condition in which the blood does not contain enough red blood cells. These cells are important because they carry oxygen throughout the body. A person who is anemic will feel tired and look pale. Healthy kidneys make the hormone EPO, which stimulates the bones to make red blood cells. Diseased kidneys may not make enough EPO. A person with CKD may need to take injections of a form of EPO.

Preparing for End-stage Renal Disease (ESRD)

As kidney disease progresses, a person needs to make several decisions. People in the later stages of CKD need to learn about their options for treating the last stages of kidney failure so they can make an informed choice between hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis, and transplantation.

What happens if the kidneys fail completely?

Total or nearly total and permanent kidney failure is called ESRD. If a person's kidneys stop working completely, the body fills with extra water and waste products. This condition is called uremia. Hands or feet may swell. A person will feel tired and weak because the body needs clean blood to function properly.
Untreated uremia may lead to seizures or coma and will ultimately result in death. A person whose kidneys stop working completely will need to undergo dialysis or kidney transplantation.

Dialysis

The two major forms of dialysis are hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis. Hemodialysis uses a special filter called a dialyzer that functions as an artificial kidney to clean a person's blood. The dialyzer is a canister connected to the hemodialysis machine. During treatment, the blood travels through tubes into the dialyzer, which filters out wastes, extra salt, and extra water. Then the cleaned blood flows through another set of tubes back into the body. The hemodialysis machine monitors blood flow and removes wastes from the dialyzer. Hemodialysis is usually performed at a dialysis center three times per week for 3 to 4 hours. A small but growing number of clinics offer home hemodialysis in addition to standard in-clinic treatments. The patient first learns to do treatments at the clinic, working with a dialysis nurse. Daily home hemodialysis is done 5 to 7 days per week for 2 to 3 hours at a time. Nocturnal dialysis can be performed for 8 hours at night while a person sleeps. Research as to which is the best method for dialysis is under way, but preliminary data indicate that daily dialysis schedules such as short daily dialysis or nocturnal dialysis may be the best form of dialysis therapy.
 In peritoneal dialysis, a fluid called dialysis solution is put into the abdomen. This fluid captures the waste products from a person's blood. After a few hours when the fluid is nearly saturated with wastes, the fluid is drained through a catheter. Then, a fresh bag of fluid is dripped into the abdomen to continue the cleansing process. Patients can perform peritoneal dialysis themselves. Patients using continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) change fluid four times a day. Another form of peritoneal dialysis, called continuous cycling peritoneal dialysis (CCPD), can be performed at night with a machine that drains and refills the abdomen automatically.

Transplantation

A donated kidney may come from an anonymous donor who has recently died or from a living person, usually a relative. The kidney must be a good match for the patient's body. The more the new kidney is like the person receiving the kidney, the less likely the immune system is to reject it. The immune system protects a person from disease by attacking anything that is not recognized as a normal part of the body. So the immune system will attack a kidney that appears too "foreign." The patient will take special drugs to help trick the immune system so it does not reject the transplanted kidney. Unless they are causing infection or high blood pressure, the diseased kidneys are left in place. Kidneys from living, related donors appear to be the best match for success, but kidneys from unrelated people also have a long survival rate. Patients approaching kidney failure should ask their doctor early about starting the process to receive a kidney transplant.

Points to Remember

  • The kidneys are two vital organs that keep the blood clean and chemically balanced.
  • Kidney disease can be detected through a spot check for protein or albumin in the urine and a calculation of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) based on a blood test.
  • The progression of kidney disease can be slowed, but it cannot always be reversed.
  • End-stage renal disease (ESRD) is the total or nearly total and permanent loss of kidney function.
  • Dialysis and transplantation can extend the lives of people with kidney failure.
  • Diabetes and high blood pressure are the two leading causes of kidney failure.
  • People with reduced kidney function should see their doctor regularly. Doctors who specialize in kidney disease are called nephrologists.
  • Chronic kidney disease (CKD) increases the risk of heart attacks and strokes.
  • People in the early stages of CKD may be able to save their remaining kidney function for many years by
    • controlling their blood glucose
    • controlling their blood pressure
    • following a low-protein diet
    • maintaining healthy levels of cholesterol in the blood
    • taking an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor or an angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB)
    • not smoking



3

Effects of Smoking


Effects of Smoking

The harmful effects of smoking on the body and overall health of smokers presented in the list below, only begins to convey some of the short and long term side effects of smoking cigarettes.
Quitting makes sense for many reasons but simply put: smoking kills and the effects of second hand smoke are also bad for the health of those around you.

Harmful Health Effects of Smoking

  • Every year hundreds of thousands of people around the world die from diseases caused by smoking cigarettes - Smoking KILLS.
  • One in two lifetime smokers will die from their habit. Half of these deaths will occur in middle age.
  • Tobacco smoke also contributes to a number of cancers.
  • The mixture of nicotine and carbon monoxide in each cigarette you smoke temporarily increases your heart rate and blood pressure, straining your heart and blood vessels.
  • This can cause heart attacks and stroke. It slows your blood flow, cutting off oxygen to your feet and hands. Some smokers end up having their limbs
    amputated
    .
  • Tar coats your lungs like soot in a chimney and causes cancer. A 20-a-day smoker breathes in up to a full cup (210 g) of tar in a year.
  • Changing to low-tar cigarettes does not help because smokers usually take deeper puffs and hold the smoke in for longer, dragging the tar deeper into their lungs.
  • Carbon monoxide robs your muscles, brain and body tissue of oxygen, making your whole body and especially your heart work harder. Over time, your airways swell up and let less air into your lungs.
  • Smoking causes disease and is a slow way to die. The strain of smoking effects on the body often causes years of suffering.
  • Emphysema for example is an illness that slowly rots your lungs. People with emphysema often get bronchitis again and again, and suffer lung and heart failure.
  • Lung cancer from smoking is caused by the tar in tobacco smoke.
  • Men who smoke are ten times more likely to die from lung cancer than non-smokers.
  • Heart disease and strokes are also more common among smokers than non-smokers.
  • Smoking causes fat deposits to narrow and block blood vessels which leads to heart attack.
  • Smoking causes around one in five deaths from heart disease.
  • In younger people, three out of four deaths from heart disease are due to smoking
  • Cigarette smoking during pregnancy increases the risk of low birth weight, prematurity, spontaneous abortion, and perinatal mortality in humans, which has been referred to as the fetal tobacco syndrome.

Tobacco smoke contains dangerous chemicals


The most damaging compounds in tobacco smoke include:
  • Tar – this is the collective term for all the various particles suspended in tobacco smoke. The particles contain chemicals including several cancer-causing substances. Tar is sticky and brown, and stains teeth, fingernails and lung tissue. Tar contains the carcinogen benzo(a)pyrene that is known to trigger tumour development (cancer).
  • Carbon monoxide – this odourless gas is fatal in large doses because it takes the place of oxygen in the blood. Each red blood cell contains a protein called haemoglobin – oxygen molecules are transported around the body by binding to, or hanging onto, this protein. However, carbon monoxide binds to haemoglobin better than oxygen. This means that less oxygen reaches the brain, heart, muscles and other organs.
  • Hydrogen cyanide – the lungs contain tiny hairs (cilia) that help to clean the lungs by moving foreign substances out. Hydrogen cyanide stops this lung clearance system from working properly, which means the poisonous chemicals in tobacco smoke can build up inside the lungs. Other chemicals in smoke that damage the lungs include hydrocarbons, nitrous oxides, organic acids, phenols and oxidising agents.
  • Free radicals – these highly reactive chemicals can damage the heart muscles and blood vessels. They react with cholesterol, leading to the build-up of fatty material on artery walls. Their actions lead to heart disease, stroke and blood vessel disease.
  • Metals – tobacco smoke contains dangerous metals including arsenic, cadmium and lead. Several of these metals are carcinogenic.
  • Radioactive compounds – tobacco smoke contains radioactive compounds, which are known to be carcinogenic.

Effects of smoking on the respiratory system


The effects of tobacco smoke on the respiratory system include:
  • Irritation of the trachea (windpipe) and larynx (voice box)
  • Reduced lung function and breathlessness due to swelling and narrowing of the lung airways and excess mucus in the lung passages
  • Impairment of the lungs’ clearance system, leading to the build-up of poisonous substances, which results in lung irritation and damage
  • Increased risk of lung infection and symptoms such as coughing and wheezing
  • Permanent damage to the air sacs of the lungs.

Effects of smoking on the circulatory system


The effects of tobacco smoke on the circulatory system include:
  • Raised blood pressure and heart rate
  • Constriction (tightening) of blood vessels in the skin, resulting in a drop in skin temperature
  • Less oxygen carried by the blood
  • Stickier blood, which is more prone to clotting
  • Damage to the lining of the arteries, which is thought to be a contributing factor to atherosclerosis (the build-up of fatty deposits on the artery walls)
  • Reduced blood flow to extremities like fingers and toes
  • Increased risk of stroke and heart attack due to blockages of the blood supply.

Effects of smoking on the immune system


The effects of tobacco smoke on the immune system include:
  • The immune system doesn’t work as well
  • The person is more prone to infections such as pneumonia and influenza
  • Illnesses are more severe and it takes longer to get over them.
  • Lower levels of protective antioxidants (such as Vitamin C), in the blood.

Effects of smoking on the musculoskeletal system


The effects of tobacco smoke on the musculoskeletal system include:
  • Tightening of certain muscles
  • Reduced bone density.

Other effects of smoking on the body


Other effects of tobacco smoke on the body include:
  • Irritation and inflammation of the stomach and intestines
  • Increased risk of painful ulcers along the digestive tract
  • Reduced ability to smell and taste
  • Premature wrinkling of the skin
  • Higher risk of blindness
  • Gum disease (periodontitis).

Effects of smoking on the male body


The specific effects of tobacco smoke on the male body include:
  • Lower sperm count
  • Higher percentage of deformed sperm
  • Genetic damage to sperm
  • Impotence, which may be due to the effects of smoking on blood flow and damage to the blood vessels of the penis.

Effects of smoking on the female body


The specific effects of tobacco smoke on the female body include:
  • Reduced fertility
  • Menstrual cycle irregularities or absence of menstruation
  • Menopause reached one or two years earlier
  • Increased risk of cancer of the cervix
  • Greatly increased risk of stroke and heart attack if the smoker is aged over 35 years and taking the oral contraceptive pill.

Effects of smoking on the unborn baby


The effects of maternal smoking on an unborn baby include:
  • Increased risk of miscarriage, stillbirth and premature birth
  • Low birth weight, which may have a lasting effect of the growth and development of children. Low birth weight is associated with an increased risk for heart disease, stroke, high blood pressure, being overweight and diabetes in adulthood
  • Increased risk of cleft palate and cleft lip
  • Paternal smoking can also harm the fetus if the non-smoking mother is exposed to second-hand smoke.
If the mother or father continues to smoke during their baby’s first year of life, the child has an increased risk of ear infections, respiratory illnesses such as pneumonia and bronchitis, sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) and meningococcal disease.

Diseases caused by long-term smoking


A lifetime smoker is at high risk of developing a range of potentially lethal diseases, including:
  • Cancer of the lung, mouth, nose, voice box, tongue, nasal sinus, oesophagus, throat, pancreas, bone marrow (myeloid leukaemia), kidney, cervix, ovary, ureter, liver, bladder, bowel and stomach
  • Lung diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, which includes chronic bronchitis and emphysema
  • Coronary artery disease, heart disease, heart attack and stroke
  • Ulcers of the digestive system
  • Osteoporosis and hip fracture
  • Poor blood circulation in feet and hands, which can lead to pain and, in severe cases, gangrene and amputation.



11

What is Your Dream?

Realty of Dream

 

What is Your Dream?

What is your dream? Will you achieve your dream in your lifetime? I'm certain that you desire to. I'm sure you hope you will. But will you actually do it? What odds would you give yourself? One in five? One in a hundred? One in a million? How can you tell whether your chances are good or whe ther your dream will always remain exactly that—a dream? And are you willing to put it to the test?
Most people I know have a dream. In fact, I’ve asked hundreds, if not thousands, of people about their dream. Some willingly describe it with great detail and enthusiasm. Others are reluctant to talk about it. They seem embarrassed to say it out loud. These people have never tested their dream. They don’t know if others will laugh at them. They’re not sure if they’re aiming too high or too low. They don’t know if their dream is something they can really achieve or if they’re destined to fail.
Most people have no idea how to achieve their dreams. What they possess is a vague notion that there is something they would like to do someday or someone they would like to become. But they don’t know how to get from here to there. If that describes you, then you’ll be glad to know that there really is hope.
Know the Answers Before You Take the Test
When you were a kid in school, do you remember a teacher doing a review before a test and saying something like, “Pay attention now, because this is going to be on the test”? I do. The encouraging teachers who wanted to see their students succeed said things like that all the time. They wanted us to be prepared so we could do well. They put us to the test, but they set us up for success.
My desire is to be like one of those encouraging teachers to you. I want to prepare you to put your dream to the test so you can actually achieve it. How? I believe that if you know the right questions to ask yourself, and if you can answer these questions in an affirmative way, you will have an excellent chance of being able to achieve your dreams. The more questions you can answer positively, the greater the likelihood of success!
The Right and Wrong Picture of a Dream
I’ve studied successful people for almost 40 years. I’ve known hundreds of high-profile people who achieved big dreams. And I’ve achieved a few dreams of my own. What I’ve discovered is that a lot of people have misconceptions about dreams. Take a look at many of the things that people pursue and call dreams in their lives:

  • Daydreams—Distractions from current work
  • Pie-in-the-Sky Dreams—Wild ideas with no strategy or basis in reality
  • Bad Dreams—Worries that breed fear and paralysis
  • Idealistic Dreams—The way the world would be if you were in charge
  • Vicarious Dreams—Dreams lived through others
  • Romantic Dreams—Belief that some person will make you happy
  • Career Dreams—Belief that career success will make you happy
  • Destination Dreams—Belief that a position, title or award will make you happy
  • Material Dreams—Belief that wealth or possessions will make you happy
If these aren’t good dreams—valid ones worthy of a person’s life—then what are? Here is my definition of a dream that can be put to the test and will pass: A dream is an inspiring picture of the future that energizes your mind, will and emotions, empowering you to do everything you can to achieve it. A dream worth pursuing is a picture and blueprint of a person’s purpose and potential. Or as my friend Sharon Hull says, “A dream is the seed of possibility planted in the soul of a human being, which calls him to pursue a unique path to the realization of his purpose.” What Do You Have in Mind
Dreams are valuable commodities. They propel us forward. They give us energy. They make us enthusiastic. Everyone ought to have a dream. But what if you’re not sure whether you have a dream you want to pursue? Let’s face it. Many people were not encouraged to dream. Others have dreams but lose hope and set them aside.
I want you to know that there’s good news. You can find or recapture your dreams. And they can be big dreams, not that all dreams have to be huge to be worth pursuing. They just need to be bigger than you are. As actress Josie Bisset remarked, “Dreams come a size too big so we can grow into them.”
If you’ve given up hope, lost sight of your dream or never connected with something that you think is worth dreaming and working toward, perhaps it would help you to learn about the five most common reasons why people have trouble identifying their dream:
1. Some People Have Been Discouraged from Dreaming by Others
Many people have had their dreams knocked right out of them! The world is filled with dream crushers and idea killers.
2. Some People Are Hindered by Past Disappointments and Hurts
Disappointment is the gap that exists between expectation and reality. All of us have encountered that gap. When something goes wrong, we say, “I’ll never do that again!” What a mistake, especially when it comes to our dreams! Failure is the price we must pay to achieve success.
3. Some People Get in the Habit of Settling for Average
Columnist Maureen Dowd says, “The minute you settle for less than you deserve, you get even less than you settled for.” Dreams require a person to stretch, to go beyond average. You can’t reach for a dream and remain safely mediocre at the same time. The two are incompatible.
4. Some People Lack the Confidence Needed to Pursue Their Dreams
Humor columnist Erma Bombeck observed, “It takes a lot of courage to show your dreams to someone else.” It takes confidence to talk about a dream and even more to pursue it. And sometimes confidence separates the people who dream and pursue those dreams from those who don’t.
5. Some People Lack the Imagination to Dream
How do people discover their dreams? By dreaming! That may sound overly simplistic, but that’s where it starts. Imagination is the soil that brings a dream to life.
Are You Ready to Put Your Dream to the Test?
OK, you may be saying to yourself, I’ve got a dream. I think it’s worth pursuing. Now what? How can I know that my odds are good for achieving it? That brings us to these questions:
  1. The Ownership Question: Is my dream really my dream?
  2. The Clarity Question: Do I clearly see my dream?
  3. The Reality Question: Am I depending on factors within my control to achieve my dream?
  4. The Passion Question: Does my dream compel me to follow it?
  5. The Pathway Question: Do I have a strategy to reach my dream?
  6. The People Question: Have I included the people I need to realize my dream?
  7. The Cost Question: Am I willing to pay the price for my dream?
  8. The Tenacity Question: Am I moving closer to my dream?
  9. The Fulfillment Question: Does working toward my dream bring satisfaction?
  10. The Significance Question: Does my dream benefit others?
I believe that if you really explore each question, examine yourself honestly and answer yes to all of them, the odds of your achieving your dream are very good. I truly believe that everyone has the potential to imagine a worthwhile dream, and most have the ability to achieve it. And it doesn’t matter how big or how seemingly outrageous your dream appears to others if your answers are yes to the Dream Test questions. Speechwriter and comedy author Robert Orben asserted, “Always remember there are only two kinds of people in this world— the realists and the dreamers. The realists know where they’re going. The dreamers have already been there.” If you have defined your dream, then you’re ready to put it to the test and start going after it.
Can You Answer Yes to the Question: What Is My Dream?
If you are unsure of what your dream might be—either because you are afraid to dream or because you somehow lost your dream along the way—then start preparing yourself to receive your dream by exploring the following:
  1. Mental preparation. Read and study in areas of your greatest interest.
  2. Experiential preparation. Engage in activities in areas related to your interests.
  3. Visual preparation. Put up pictures of people and things that inspire you.
  4. Hero preparation. Read about and try to meet people you admire and who inspire you.
  5. Physical preparation. Get your body in optimal shape to pursue your dream.
  6. Spiritual preparation. Seek God’s help for a bigger-than-self dream.
Once you do these six things to put yourself in the best possible position to receive a dream, focus on discovering your dream. As you do, keep in mind the words of my agent, Matt Yates, who says, “A dream is what you desire if anything and everything is possible.” Excerpt from Put Your Dream to the Test: 10 Questions That Will Help You See It and Seize It (Thomas Nelson, 2008).





561

How to Get your Website to the Top of Google Search Results? – Powerful Technique


How to Get your Website to the Top of Google Search Results? – Powerful Technique Revealed

So you want to know how to get your website to the top of Google search results, but you haven’t found the right answer yet…
Have you?
Search engine traffic is the best traffic you can ever get. SEO is the best way to drive fast and easy traffic to a website. Whether you are a newbie or a little experienced already; there are certain techniques you might not know and can certainly boost up your search engine rankings.
Learn how to get your website to the top of Google search results by learning how to find the right keywords to rank for. In order to rank for a certain keyword fast and easy, you need to find the right keyword with really low competition. We are also teaching how to make money online through different Free Blogging Platforms for free. So, Keep watching us.
w competition and with a bit of traffic.


Learn How to Get your Website to the Top of Google Search Results with the following method:

The very first step is to do a deep keyword research and get the keywords you want to rank for in Google.
First, go to the Google Keyword Tool; then open up 3 extra tabs in your internet browser, go to Google.com in each one of them. Type the following in each Google.com page:
  •  Allinurl:”keyword
  • Allinanchor:”keyword
  • Allintitle:”keyword
Finally open up one more browser tab on Google.com
You want to keep these 4 tabs open at all times while you’re doing your keyword research, you will be using them a lot…
Now, go to the Google keyword tool; make sure you select the [Exact] option instead of the [Broad] option; these are located on the left sidebar. Then proceed and type in your root keywords.
You want to check on the keywords with a low competition and somewhat low global monthly traffic.
Remember to gather keywords that meet the following:
  •  Low Competition
  • Global Monthly Traffic around 400 – 800
Get around 20 to 60 keywords, maybe more; make sure they meet these qualifications. You’re not done with the research after this, remember you still have those 4 tabs open.
Open up a notepad and copy your keywords there. You will be selecting only a few from the bunch.
Now is time to use the 3 browser tabs with the allin—:”keyword” Google search queries.
Grab each keyword and use each tab to make these search queries with your keyword:
  • Allinurl:”yourkeyword
  • Allinanchor:”yourkeyword
  • Allintitle:”yourkeyword
You need to separate the keywords that meet the following for the search results:
Google Keyword Search:
  • ”yourkeyword”
*Results= below 500,000 – 800,000
  • Allinurl:”yourkeyword”
*Search Results= below 5,000
  • Allinanchor:”yourkeyword”
*Search Results= below 30,000
  • Allintitle:”yourkeyword”

*Search Results= below 3,000
Of course these numbers are from my experiences and tests; you can definitely play around with these numbers and come up with your own requirements. After you have your keywords selected it will be really easy for you to rank for them, sometimes you can rank to the first page of Google within a few hours!
I suggest you to go for 5 to 10 keywords at a time, rank for them and then just rinse and repeat.
Do not overwhelm yourself with too many keywords, you will take longer and it will be a lot more stressful that way.
Remember to only select the keywords that get enough global monthly traffic worth the work to rank for it.  It might take you hours to find keywords that meet these requirements but once you get a bunch of easy-to-rank-for keywords then you can drive a lot of free search engine traffic to your website.
This is an old method to use for free, now in these days you must know there are many keyword research software you can use to speed up all of this work.

After you optimize your site for your selected keywords; spend about an hour or more everyday building backlinks and SEO strategies to the optimized pages you’ve created with the selected keywords. This process can bring free traffic to your site very fast.
I really hope this technique can be useful to you…
I would like to get feedback if you use this information



3

Independence Problems

Independence Problems 

 


Pakistan was carved out in desperate urgency. It came into existence with horrible loss of life and property, and the migration of millions of dazed and destitute men, women, and children. The cost was heavy in terms of human suffering. But what the Muslims wanted and what they achieved was a homeland of their own. They now had the freedom to worship, practice their religious faith and develop their culture. Moreover, independence had opened up a bright future for the Muslims, who hoped for a better standard of living, economic development, prosperity and a fuller life.
But it seemed in those early years (1947-58) that the immense sacrifices might have been in vain for Pakistan had been struggling from one major crisis to another, fighting to ward off the multiple problems that threatened the nation.
The main problems were:
1. Refugees
2. Indus Water
3. Accession of Princely States

1. Refugees


It had been agreed between Jinnah and Nehru that a Boundary Commission should be setup to define the borders between India and Pakistan. The British Government immediately appointed a Boundary Commission under Sir Cyril Radcliffe to demarcate permanent borders.
The boundaries had to be defined as such that provinces, districts, and villages that were predominantly Muslim went to Pakistan, while Hindu majority areas went to India. Provinces like Baluchistan, Sindh, N. W. F. P. and East Bengal provided little difficulty. But deep problems arose when boundaries in Punjab had to be fixed; there were also a substantial number of Hindus and Sikhs residing in this region, other than the Muslims. However, the province was partitioned.
When the boundaries were drawn between India and Pakistan, it resulted in many tragic events. In an almost frantic, cruel rush, the commission divided districts, villages, farmlands, water and property. Thousands of innocent men, women and children were caught unaware. The result was that many hastened across the border, leaving their homes, land and personal property to seek refuge. Panic, fear, revenge and reprisals followed. Both India and Pakistan were soaked in blood. It left on Pakistan's doorstep, seven million refugees who had to be rehabilitated, clothed, fed and sheltered.
Partition also involved dividing of the assets of the Sub-continent. India, being the larger country, got the lion's share in all transactions, leaving Pakistan with minimal resources to survive and build on.
Equally disastrous was the economic situation. There were not sufficient skilled personnel to run the railways, hospitals and offices. There weren't enough chairs, tables or even stationery and paper pins for administrative purposes. Food was scarce. Pakistan had no industry.
At the time of partition, the cash balances of undivided India stood at about Rupees 4,000 million. At the beginning of December 1947, India and Pakistan mutually came to an agreement that Pakistan would get Rupees 750 million as her share. Rupees 200 million had been already paid to Pakistan while Rupees 550 million were to be paid immediately. But this amount was withheld on the plea that Pakistan would use it in the war going on in Kashmir. However, as this stand was morally untenable, the remaining amount was later on released after Gandhi's fast and under world pressure on January 15, 1948.
Soon afterwards, Sardar Patel threatened that the implementation of the agreement would depend upon the settlement of the Kashmir issue. But, it was upon Gandhi's request that the Reserved Bank of India paid Pakistan Rupees 500 million, retaining the balance of Rupees 50 million to adjust some trumped up claim against Pakistan

2. The Indus Water


The most explosive of Indo-Pakistan disputes was the question of sharing the waters of the Indus basin.
On April 1, 1948, India cut off the supply of water from the two headworks under her control. Fortunately, Eugene Black, President of the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development offered the offices of the Bank for the solution of the water problem in 1952. A solution acceptable to both governments was agreed upon in 1960 at the Indus Basin Development Fund Agreement at Karachi. This treaty is commonly known as the "Indus Water Treaty".
The treaty allowed for a transitional period of 10 to 13 years, after which the three eastern rivers would fall exclusively to India's share and the three western rivers to Pakistan. During the transitional period, Pakistan would construct a system of replacement works consisting of two dams, five barrages and seven link canals financed by the Indus Development Fund.

3.Accession of Princely States


Prior to partition, there existed in British India many semi-autonomous Princely states whose future had to be settled before Britain withdrew from India.
There were some 560 such states all over the Sub-continent. Some fell within Indian territory, others in Pakistan.
On July 25, 1947, Lord Louis Mountbatten (the last Viceroy of India) in his address to the Chamber of Princes advised them that in deciding the question of accession, they should take into consideration communal composition and the geographical location of their states. Nearly all the states accepted the reality of the situation and opted either for Pakistan or India accordingly. But there were four states, Junagadh, Hyderabad, Jodhpur and Kashmir, which defied the principle of partition.
I. Junagadh: The ruler of Junagadh was a Muslim but 80 percent of his subjects were Hindus. On September 15, 1947, the Nawab acceded to Pakistan, despite the fact that his state did not fall within the geographical grouping of Pakistan. India protested, stormed in her troops, and forcibly reversed the Nawab's decision and Junagadh became a part of India.
II. Hyderabad: Hyderabad, the second of the defiant states was the largest and richest in India. Its population was 85 percent Hindu but the ruler (Nizam) was a Muslim. He was reluctant to accede either to India or Pakistan but was dismissed by Mountbatten for adopting this course. The Nizam was forced by the Indian government and Lord Mountbatten to join India. A standstill agreement was concluded between India and Hyderabad. The Hindu subjects were incited to revolt against the Nizam's desire to be independent. The whole province suffered turmoil and violence. Hyderabad filed a compliant with the Security Council of the United Nations. Before the hearing could be started, Indian troops entered Hyderabad to "restore order", and under the pretext of "police action" Hyderabad was forced to join India. The Hyderabad army surrendered on September 17, 1948, and finally Hyderabad was annexed into the Indian Union.
III. Jodhpur: Yet another prince, the Maharaja of Jodhpur, expressed a wish to join Pakistan but Mountbatten warned him that his subjects were mostly Hindus and his accession to Pakistan would create problems. As a result Jodhpur, too, acceded to India.
IV. Kashmir: Please see "Kashmir Crisis".


63

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0

Web hosting service

 Web hosting service

 

A web hosting service is a type of Internet hosting service that allows individuals and organizations to make their website accessible via the World Wide Web. Web hosts are companies that provide space on a server owned or leased for use by clients, as well as providing Internet connectivity, typically in a data center. Web hosts can also provide data center space and connectivity to the Internet for other servers located in their data center, called colocation, also known as Housing in Latin America or France.

The scope of web hosting services varies greatly. The most basic is web page and small-scale file hosting, where files can be uploaded via File Transfer Protocol (FTP) or a Web interface. The files are usually delivered to the Web "as is" or with minimal processing. Many Internet service providers (ISPs) offer this service free to subscribers. Individuals and organizations may also obtain Web page hosting from alternative service providers. Personal web site hosting is typically free, advertisement-sponsored, or inexpensive. Business web site hosting often has a higher expense depending upon the size and type of the website.


Single page hosting is generally sufficient for personal web pages. A complex site calls for a more comprehensive package that provides database support and application development platforms (e.g. PHP, Java, Ruby on Rails, ColdFusion, or ASP.NET). These facilities allow customers to write or install scripts for applications like forums and content management. Also, Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) is typically used for e-commerce.

The host may also provide an interface or control panel for managing the Web server and installing scripts, as well as other modules and service applications like e-mail. Some hosts specialize in certain software or services (e.g. e-commerce), which are commonly used by larger companies that outsource network infrastructure.

    1 Reliability and uptime
    2 Types of hosting
    3 Obtaining hosting
    4 See also
    5 References
    6 External links

Reliability and uptime

The availability of a website is measured by the percentage of a year in which the website is publicly accessible and reachable via the internet. This is different than measuring the uptime of a system. Uptime refers to the system itself being online, however it does not take into account being able to reach it as in the event of a network outage.



The formula to determine a system’s availability is relatively easy: Total time = 365 days per year * 24 hours per day * 60 minutes per hour = 525,600 minutes per year. To calculate how many minutes of downtime a system may experience per year, take the uptime guarantee and multiply it by total time in a year.

In the example of 99.99%: (1 - .9999) * 525,600 = 52.56 allowable minutes down per year.

The following table shows the translation from a given availability percentage to the corresponding amount of time a system would be unavailable per year, month, or week.
Availability %     Downtime per year     Downtime per month*     Downtime per week
90% ("one nine")     36.5 days     72 hours     16.8 hours
95%     18.25 days     36 hours     8.4 hours
97%     10.96 days     21.6 hours     5.04 hours
98%     7.30 days     14.4 hours     3.36 hours
99% ("two nines")     3.65 days     7.20 hours     1.68 hours
99.5%     1.83 days     3.60 hours     50.4 minutes
99.8%     17.52 hours     86.23 minutes     20.16 minutes
99.9% ("three nines")     8.76 hours     43.2 minutes     10.1 minutes
99.95%     4.38 hours     21.56 minutes     5.04 minutes
99.99% ("four nines")     52.56 minutes     4.32 minutes     1.01 minutes

*For monthly calculations, a 30-day month is used.

A hosting provider’s SLAs may include a certain amount of scheduled downtime per year in order to perform maintenance on the systems. This scheduled downtime is often excluded from the SLA timeframe, and needs to be subtracted from the Total Time when availability is calculated. Depending on the verbiage of an SLA, if the availability of a system drops below that in the signed SLA, a hosting provider often will provide a partial refund for time lost.
Types of hosting
A typical server "rack" commonly seen in colocation centres


Internet hosting services can run Web servers.

Many large companies that are not internet service providers need to be permanently connected to the web to send email, files, etc. to other sites. The company may use the computer as a website host to provide details of their goods and services and facilities for online orders.

    Free web hosting service: offered by different companies with limited services, sometimes supported by advertisements, and often limited when compared to paid hosting.
    Shared web hosting service: one's website is placed on the same server as many other sites, ranging from a few to hundreds or thousands. Typically, all domains may share a common pool of server resources, such as RAM and the CPU. The features available with this type of service can be quite basic and not flexible in terms of software and updates. Resellers often sell shared web hosting and web companies often have reseller accounts to provide hosting for clients.
    Reseller web hosting: allows clients to become web hosts themselves. Resellers could function, for individual domains, under any combination of these listed types of hosting, depending on who they are affiliated with as a reseller. Resellers' accounts may vary tremendously in size: they may have their own virtual dedicated server to a colocated server. Many resellers provide a nearly identical service to their provider's shared hosting plan and provide the technical support themselves.
    Virtual Dedicated Server: also known as a Virtual Private Server (VPS), divides server resources into virtual servers, where resources can be allocated in a way that does not directly reflect the underlying hardware. VPS will often be allocated resources based on a one server to many VPSs relationship, however virtualisation may be done for a number of reasons, including the ability to move a VPS container between servers. The users may have root access to their own virtual space. Customers are sometimes responsible for patching and maintaining the server.
    Dedicated hosting service: the user gets his or her own Web server and gains full control over it (user has root access for Linux/administrator access for Windows); however, the user typically does not own the server. One type of Dedicated hosting is Self-Managed or Unmanaged. This is usually the least expensive for Dedicated plans. The user has full administrative access to the server, which means the client is responsible for the security and maintenance of his own dedicated server.
    Managed hosting service: the user gets his or her own Web server but is not allowed full control over it (user is denied root access for Linux/administrator access for Windows); however, they are allowed to manage their data via FTP or other remote management tools. The user is disallowed full control so that the provider can guarantee quality of service by not allowing the user to modify the server or potentially create configuration problems. The user typically does not own the server. The server is leased to the client.
    Colocation web hosting service: similar to the dedicated web hosting service, but the user owns the colo server; the hosting company provides physical space that the server takes up and takes care of the server. This is the most powerful and expensive type of web hosting service. In most cases, the colocation provider may provide little to no support directly for their client's machine, providing only the electrical, Internet access, and storage facilities for the server. In most cases for colo, the client would have his own administrator visit the data center on site to do any hardware upgrades or changes. Formerly, many colocation providers would accept any system configuration for hosting, even ones housed in desktop-style minitower cases, but most hosts now require rack mount enclosures and standard system configurations.
    Cloud hosting: is a new type of hosting platform that allows customers powerful, scalable and reliable hosting based on clustered load-balanced servers and utility billing. A cloud hosted website may be more reliable than alternatives since other computers in the cloud can compensate when a single piece of hardware goes down. Also, local power disruptions or even natural disasters are less problematic for cloud hosted sites, as cloud hosting is decentralized. Cloud hosting also allows providers to charge users only for resources consumed by the user, rather than a flat fee for the amount the user expects they will use, or a fixed cost upfront hardware investment. Alternatively, the lack of centralization may give users less control on where their data is located which could be a problem for users with data security or privacy concerns.
    Clustered hosting: having multiple servers hosting the same content for better resource utilization. Clustered Servers are a perfect solution for high-availability dedicated hosting, or creating a scalable web hosting solution. A cluster may separate web serving from database hosting capability. (Usually Web hosts use Clustered Hosting for their Shared hosting plans, as there are multiple benefits to the mass managing of clients).
    Grid hosting: this form of distributed hosting is when a server cluster acts like a grid and is composed of multiple nodes.
    Home server: usually a single machine placed in a private residence can be used to host one or more web sites from a usually consumer-grade broadband connection. These can be purpose-built machines or more commonly old PCs. Some ISPs actively attempt to block home servers by disallowing incoming requests to TCP port 80 of the user's connection and by refusing to provide static IP addresses. A common way to attain a reliable DNS host name is by creating an account with a dynamic DNS service. A dynamic DNS service will automatically change the IP address that a URL points to when the IP address changes.

Some specific types of hosting provided by web host service providers:

    File hosting service: hosts files, not web pages
    Image hosting service
    Video hosting service
    Blog hosting service
    Paste bin
    Shopping cart software
    E-mail hosting service


Obtaining hosting

Web hosting is often provided as part of a general Internet access plan; there are many free and paid providers offering these types of web hosting.

A customer needs to evaluate the requirements of the application to choose what kind of hosting to use. Such considerations include database server software, scripting software, and operating system. Most hosting providers provide Linux-based web hosting which offers a wide range of different software. A typical configuration for a Linux server is the LAMP platform: Linux, Apache, MySQL, and PHP/Perl/Python. The web hosting client may want to have other services, such as email for their business domain, databases or multimedia services. A customer may also choose Windows as the hosting platform. The customer still can choose from PHP, Perl, and Python but may also use ASP .Net or Classic ASP. Web hosting packages often include a Web Content Management System, so the end-user does not have to worry about the more technical aspects.



0

The Birth of Pakistan

The Birth of Pakistan

 

The British Parliament passed the Indian Independence Act on July 18, 1947. The Act created two dominions, Indian Union and Pakistan. It also provided for the complete end of British control over Indian affairs from August 15, 1947. The Muslims of the Sub-continent had finally achieved their goal to have an independent state for themselves, but only after a long and relentless struggle under the single-minded guidance of the Quaid.
The Muslims faced a gamut of problems immediately after independence. However, keeping true to their traditions, they overcame them after a while. Quaid-i-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah was appointed the first Governor General of Pakistan and Liaquat Ali Khan became its first Prime Minister. Pakistan became a dominion within the British Commonwealth of Nations.
The boundaries of Pakistan emerged on the map of the world in 1947. This was accomplished on the basis of the Two-Nation Theory. This theory held that there were two nations, Hindus and Muslims living in the territory of the Sub-continent. Sir Syed Ahmad Khan was the first exponent of the Two-Nation Theory in the modern era. He believed that India was a continent and not a country, and that among the vast population of different races and different creeds, Hindus and Muslims were the two major nations on the basis of nationality, religion, way-of-life, customs, traditions, culture and historical conditions.
The politicization of the Muslim community came about as a consequence of three developments:
  • Various efforts towards Islamic reform and revival during the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
  • The impact of Hindu-based nationalism.
  • The democratization of the government of British India.
While the antecedents of Muslim nationalism in India go back to the early Islamic conquests of the Sub-continent, organizationally it stems from the demands presented by the Simla Deputation to Lord Minto, the Governor General of India, in October 1906, proposing separate electorates for the Indian Muslims. The principal reason behind this demand was the maintenance of a separate identity of the Muslim nationhood.
In the same year, the founding of the All India Muslim League, a separate political organization for Muslims, elucidated the fact that the Muslims of India had lost trust in the Hindu-dominated Indian National Congress. Besides being a Hindu-dominated body, the Congress leaders in order to win grass-root support for their political movements, used Hindu religious symbols and slogans, thereby arousing Muslim suspicions regarding the secular character of the Congress.
Events like the Urdu-Hindi controversy (1867), the partition of Bengal (1905), and Hindu revivalism, set the two nations, the Hindus and the Muslims, further apart. Re-annulment of the partition of Bengal in 1911 by the British government brought the Congress and the Muslim League on one platform. Starting with the constitutional cooperation in the Lucknow Pact (1916), they launched the Non-Cooperation and Khilafat Movements to press upon the British government the demand for constitutional reforms in India in the post-World War I era.
But after the collapse of the Khilafat Movement, Hindu-Muslim antagonism was revived once again. The Muslim League rejected the proposals forwarded by the Nehru Report and they chose a separate path for themselves. The idea of a separate homeland for the Muslims of Northern India as proposed by Allama Iqbal in his famous Allahabad Address showed that the creation of two separate states for the Muslims and Hindus was the only solution. The idea was reiterated during the Sindh provincial meeting of the League, and finally adopted as the official League position in the Lahore Declaration of March 23, 1940.
Thus these historical, cultural, religious and social differences between the two nations accelerated the pace of political developments, finally leading to the division of British India into two separate, independent states, Pakistan and India, on August 14 & 15, 1947, respectively.
                                                                                                by admin on Oct 24, 2011 
                                                                                                published on may 13 ,2013


0

Shaykh-ul-Islam Dr Muhammad Tahir-ul-Qadri

Brief introduction of Shaykh-ul-Islam, some of his achievements, works and chains of authority


A man of manifold and staggering achievements, Shaykh-ul-Islam Dr Muhammad Tahir-ul-Qadri is the founding leader of Minhaj-ul-Qur’an International (MQI), an organization with branches and centres in more than 90 countries around the globe, working for the promotion of peace and harmony between communities and the revival of spiritual endeavour based on the true teachings of Islam. Shaykh-ul-Islam is a scholar of extraordinary proportions and an intellectual leader for all seasons. He is a living model of profound classical knowledge, intellectual enlightenment, practical wisdom, pure spirituality, love, harmony and humanism. He is well known for his ardent endeavour to strengthen bonds among people, by bringing them together through tolerance, dialogue, integration and education. He successfully bridges the past with his image of the future and finds convincing solutions for contemporary problems. He has been teaching Hadith, Tafsir, Fiqh, Theology, Sufism, Seerah, Islamic philosophy and many other rational and traditional sciences to thousands of people, including Ulema, scholars, Shuyukh, students, intellectuals and academics in the east and the west.
Shaykh-ul-Islam was born on February 19, 1951 in the historical city of Jhang, Pakistan, and is the son of the great spiritualist and intellectual of his time ash-Shaykh Dr Farida’d-Din al-Qadri. He was educated from the young age in both the Islamic and secular sciences simultaneously. Although he had already started his religious education under his father two years earlier, his formal classical education was initiated in Madina at the age of 12, in Madrasa al-‘Ulum ash-Shar‘iyya, which was situated in the blessed house of Sayyiduna Abu Ayyub al-Ansari, the first residence of the Holy Prophet (blessings and peace be upon him) after his migration. By the time he had received a First Class Honours Degree from the University of the Punjab in 1970, he had also completed his Classical Islamic Studies, having spent over ten years under the tutelage of his father and other eminent Shuyukh of his time and achieving an unparalleled understanding of the classical shari‘a sciences and Arabic language.
He earned his MA in Islamic Studies in 1972 with the University of the Punjab Gold Medal, achieved his LLB in 1974 and began to practise as a lawyer in the district courts of Jhang. He moved to Lahore in 1978 and joined the University of the Punjab as a lecturer in law and then gained his PhD in Islamic Law. He was also a member of the Syndicate, Senate and Academic Council of the University of the Punjab, which are the highest executive, administrative and academic bodies of the University.
In a short span of time, he emerged as the country’s leading Islamic jurist and scholar and revivalist of the Islamic ideology. He was appointed as a Jurist Consult (legal adviser) on Islamic law for the Supreme Court and the Federal Shari‘a Court of Pakistan and also worked as a specialist adviser on Islamic curricula for the Federal Ministry of Education of Pakistan at various times between 1983 and 1987. In the 1980s, a number of historical judgments in the legal and constitutional history of Pakistan were passed by the Federal Shariʻa Court and the Appellate Shariʻa Bench, Supreme Court of Pakistan as a result of Shaykh-ul-Islam’s juristic arguments, documented in the Pakistan Legal Decisions (PLDs) and Pakistan Legal Judgments (PLJs).
He is also a former Professor of Islamic Law at the University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan, and the youngest person ever to have been awarded a professorship in the history of the University. Shaykh-ul-Islam has also previously held the position of the Head of the Department for LLM in Islamic Legislation.
Shaykh-ul-Islam founded Minhaj-ul-Qur’an in 1981 and established its headquarters in Lahore. In less than 30 years, Minhaj-ul-Qur’an has expanded and spread over more than 90 countries around the world; and in terms of its comprehensive and all-encompassing sphere of activities, educational, social, cultural and spiritual, Minhaj-ul-Qur’an is probably one of the largest non-governmental organizations in the world.
Shaykh-ul-Islam is founder and Chairman of the Board of Governors of the Minhaj University Lahore which is chartered by Government and is imparting higher education to thousands of students in the faculties of basic, modern, social, management and religious sciences. He is the founder of Minhaj Education Society which has established more than 570 schools and colleges in Pakistan. He is also the founding Chairman of Minhaj Welfare Foundation, a humanitarian and social welfare organization working globally. He is the founding leader of different forums of Minhaj-ul-Qur’an including Minhaj-ul-Qur’an Ullama Council, Minhaj-ul-Qur’an Women League, Minhaj Youth League, Mustafavi Students Movements and Muslim Christian Dialogue Forum.

The Works of Shaykh-ul-Islam

Shaykh-ul-Islam is a prolific author and researcher. He has authored around 1000 books out of which 400 books are already published, and the rest of them are yet to be published. An unrivalled orator and speaker, he has delivered over 5000 lectures (in Urdu, English and Arabic), on a wide range of subjects, which are available on cassette, CD, DVD formats as well as online.
The following represents a selection of his printed works:

Works on Qur’anic Tafsir (in number totaling 80 works) include:

  • Irfan al-Qur’an (the Meanings of the Qur’an — Urdu and English versions)
  • Tafsir Minhaj al-Qur’an (al-Futuhat al-Madaniyya — 14 volumes U.P.)
  • Tafsir Sura al-Fatiha (partly published, totaling 7 volumes), the largest available publication on this subject.
  • Kashf al-Ghita ʻan Maʻrifat al-Aqsam li-l-Mustafa (Tafsir in Arabic on the excellence of the Holy Prophet — blessings and peace be upon him).
  • Tasmiyya al-Qur’an (a voluminous book on the meanings of Bism Allah)
  • Manahij al-‘Irfan fi Lafz al-Qur’an (a voluminous book on the meanings of the word Qur’an)
  • Meaning of Ayat al-Kursi (a voluminous book)
  • Development of Human Personality in the Light of Sura al-Fatiha
  • Islamic Philosophy of Human Life
  • No Coercion in Religion
  • al-ʻIrfan fi Fadaʼil wa Adab al-Qurʼan (recitation of the Qur’an; virtues and manners)
  • Islamic Concept of Human Nature
  • Qur’anic Philosophy of Da‘wa
And many others

Works on Hadith compilation and the science of Hadith (in number totaling 100 works):

  • Jami‘ as-Sunna fi ma Yahtaj Ilayhi Akhir al-Umma (a comprehensive compilation of 25,000 ahadith, totaling 20 volumes U.P.)
  • al-Minhaj as-Sawiyy min al-Hadith an-Nabawiyy (4 volumes — collection of 5,000 ahadith compiled on the pattern and style of al-Imam an-Nawawi’s Riyad as-Salihin and al-Khatib at-Tabrizi’s Mishkat al-Masabih relevant to the modern age). Its abridged version Mukhtasar Al-Minhaj as-Sawiyy was published with compliments and tributes of Shaykh al-Azhar as-Sayyid Dr Muhammad Tantawi, a renowned Muhaddith of Egypt, ash-Shaykh Dr Ahmad ‘Umar Hashim, Ex-Vice Chancellor of Jami‘a al-Azhar, Cairo, and Grand Mufti of Egypt ash-Shaykh Dr ‘Ali Jumu‘a and others.
  • al-‘Ata fi Ma‘rifat al-Mustafa (4 volumes — collection of 5,000 ahadith on the subjects of the excellence, habits, morals, specialties and miracles of the Holy Prophet — blessings and peace be upon him — on the pattern and style of ash-Shifa of al-Qadi ‘Iyad U.P.)
  • Hidayat al-Umma ‘ala Minhaj al-Qur’an wa’s-Sunna (2 volumes — another collection of 2,200 ahadith)
  • Prophetic Virtues & Miracles
  • Al-Wafa fi Rahmat an-Nabi al-Mustafa
  • Al-Makana al-‘Aliyya fi’l-Khasa’is an-Nabawiyya
  • Al-Mizat an-Nabawiyya fi’l-Khasa’is ad-Dunwiyya
  • Al-‘Azama an-Nabawiyya fi’l-Khasa’is al-Barzakhiyya
  • Al-Futuhat an-Nabawiyya fi’l-Khasa’is al-Ukhrawiyya
  • Al-Jawahir an-Naqiyya fi ash-Shuma’il an-Nabawiyya
  • Al-Matalib as-Saniyya fi’l-‘Adat an-Nabawiyya
  • Al-Minahat as-Samadiyya fi’l-Ikhtiyarat an-Nabawiyya
  • Al-Imtiyazat an-Nabawiyya fi’l-‘Ulum al-Ghaybiyya
  • Al-Fawz al-Jali fi at-Tawassul bi’n-Nabi
  • Ash-Sharaf al-‘Ali fi at-Tabarruk bi’n-Nabi
  • an-Nur al-Mubin fi Hayat an-Nabi al-Amin
  • Al-Minhal as-Safi fi Ziyarat Qabr an-Nabi
  • Ghayat as-Sifa fi Husn Jasad al-Mustafa
  • Al-‘Asal an-Naqi fi Asma’ an-Nabi
  • an-Najaba fi Manaqib as-Sahaba wa’l-Qaraba (virtues of the Companions and the Family of the Holy Prophet [blessings and peace be upon him])
  • Rawdat as-Salikin fi Manaqib al-Awliya’ wa’s-Salihin (Virtues of the Friends of Allah and the Pious)
  • Ahsan ’s-Sana’a fi Ithbat ash-Shafa’a (Intercession)
  • Rahat al-Qulub fi Madhi ’n-Nabiyyi al-Mahbub (Hymn of the Holy Prophet [blessings and peace be upon him])
  • Kashf al-Asrar fi Mahabbat al-Mawjudat li-Sayyid al-Abrar
  • al-Badra’t-Tamam ‘ala Sahib’id-Dunuww wa’l-Maqam (virtues of Greetings and Salutations on the Holy Prophet [blessings and peace be upon him])
  • Ahsana’s-Subul fi Manaqib al-Anbiya’ wa’r-Rusul (virtues of the Prophets and Messengers)
  • as-Sayf al-Jali ‘ala Munkir Wilayat ‘Ali
  • al-Qawl al-Mu‘tabar fi’l-Imam al-Muntazar
  • al-Qawl al-Qawiyy fi Sama‘ al-Hasan ‘an ‘Ali (a book on the science of Hadith in Arabic language. It establishes the fact that al-Hasan of Busra met ‘Ali and heard him narrate traditions.)
  • al-Kanz ath-Thamin fi Fadilat adh-Dhikr wa’dh-Dhakirin (Pearls of Remembrance)
  • al-Khutba as-Sadida fi Usul al-Hadith wa Furu‘ al-‘Aqida (a brief textbook on the science of Hadith in the Arabic language)
  • al-‘Abdiyya fi’l-Hadrat as-Samadiyya (Rights of Allah on His Slaves)
  • Al-Marwiyyat as-Sulamiyya min al-Ahadith an-Nabawiyya
  • Al-Marwiyyat al-Qushayriyya min al-Ahadith an-Nabawiyya
  • Al-Marwiyyat as-Suhrawardiyya min al-Ahadith an-Nabawiyya
  • Marwiyyat ash-Shaykh al-Akbar min Ahadith an-Nabi al-Athar
  • al-Lubab fi’l-Huquq wa’l-Adab (Rights and Manners)
  • Righteous Character & Excellence of Social Interaction
  • An-Najah fi A‘mal al-Birr wa as-Sadaqa wa as-Salah
  • Ad-Da‘wat wa’l-Adhkar min Sunna an-Nabi al-Mukhtar
  • al-Futuhat fi’l-Adhkar ba‘d as-Salawat
  • Al-Manahil as-Safiyya fi Sharaf al-Umma al-Muhammadiyya
  • Imam Abu Hanifa: Imam al-A’imma fi’l-Hadith (4 volumes)
And many others

Works on Islamic ‘Aqida (in number totaling 100 works) include:

  • Majmu‘at al-‘Aqa’id (25 volumes — an unprecedented compendium on Islamic Faith and Theology)
  • Kitab at-Tawhid (a detailed treatise on the concept of the unity of Allah running into 2 volumes)
  • Kitab ar-Risala (2 volumes — a detailed treatise on the excellence of Prophethood and highly esteemed station of the Holy Prophet — blessings and peace be upon him)
  • Kitab as-Sunna (2 volumes — a comprehensive treatise on the authority, science and compilation of hadith and sunna)
  • Makanat ar-Risala wa’s-Sunna
  • Kitab al-Bid‘a (a comprehensive work on the concept of “innovations” in Islam)
  • Kitab al-Iman (Basic Tenets of Faith)
  • Kitab al-Islam (Pillars of Islam)
  • Kitab al-Ihsan (Book on Spiritual Excellence)
  • Kitab az-Ziyara (Book on Visiting the Graves)
  • Kitab al-Baraka (Book on Blessings)
  • Kitab ash-Shafa‘a (Book on Intercession)
  • Kitab at-Tawassul (Book on Intermediation)
  • at-Ta‘zim wa’l-‘Ibada (Reverence and Worship)
  • al-Wasa’it ash-Shar‘iyya (Lawful Means and Linkages)
  • Reverence of Prophethood
  • Finality of Prophethood
  • al-Mawlid an-Nabawiyy ([blessings and peace be upon him)] Celebration of Mawlid] The largest ever written work on this subject, consisting of approximately 850 pages)
  • ‘Ilm al-Ghayb (Book on the Knowledge of the Unseen)
  • Ascension of the Holy Prophet (blessings and peace be upon him)
  • Love and Reverence of the Holy Prophet (blessings and peace be upon him)
  • The Central Point of Iman
  • Prisoners of the Beauty of Muhammad (blessings and peace be upon him)
And many others

Works on the Biography (Sira) of the Holy Prophet (blessings and peace be upon him) and his virtuous characteristics:

  • Sirat ar-Rasul (collection of 14 volumes, the largest collection ever written in the Urdu language)
  • Muqaddima as-Sira (2 volumes — an unprecedented work in Islamic history on the pattern of Muqaddima Ibn Khaldun)
  • Khasa’is al-Mustafa (Holy Prophet’s Exclusive Virtues)
  • Shama’il al-Mustafa (Holy Prophet’s Personal Characteristics and Habits)
  • Asma’ al-Mustafa (Meanings and Interpretation of the Holy Prophet’s Names)
  • Dala’il al-Barakat (2500 styles of greetings and salutations on the Holy Prophet — blessings and peace be upon him — a masterpiece of Arabic literature, written in the style of the well-read Dala’il al-Khayrat of Imam Jazuli)
  • Political Aspect of the Prophet’s Sira
  • Economic Aspect of the Prophet’s Sira
  • Administrative Aspect of the Prophet’s Sira
  • Constitutional Aspect of the Prophet’s Sira
  • Scientific Aspect of the Prophet’s Sira
  • Cultural Aspect of the Prophet’s Sira
  • Historical Aspect of the Prophet’s Sira
  • Aspect of Human Rights in the Prophet’s Sira
  • Aspect of Peace and Integration in the Prophet’s Sira
  • Diplomatic Relations in the Prophet’s Sira
  • Relations to Non-Muslims in the Prophet’s Sira
  • Revolutionary Struggle in the Prophet’s Sira
  • Qur’an on the Characteristics of the Holy Prophet (blessings and peace be upon him)
And many others

Works on Islamic Law and Jurisprudence (Fiqh and Usul al-Fiqh) totaling around 60 works:

  • Islamic Penal System and Philosophy (Shaykh-ul-Islam’s doctoral thesis)
  • Islamic Concept of Law
  • Salient Characteristics of Islamic Law
  • Islamic Concept of Crime
  • A Comparative Study of Islamic and Western Concepts of Law
  • Islam and Criminality
  • Legal Character of Islamic Punishments
  • al-Hukm ash-Shar‘i (a book on Usul al-Fiqh [Islamic jurisprudence])
  • Sources of Islamic Law
  • Philosophy of Ijtihad and the Modern World
  • Ijtihad — Meaning, Kinds and Scope
  • Jurisprudential Methodology of Islamic Research
  • Islamic Concept of State
  • Qur’anic Basis of Constitutional Theory
  • Concept of Jail and Imprisonment in Islam
  • Difference between the Text and its Exegesis
And many others

Works on Islamic Political and Economic Systems:

  • The Constitution of Madina (a detailed exposition of the first ever written constitution in human history)
  • Khilafa and Democracy (a voluminous work on the subject of Islamic Political System U.P.)
  • Islamic Economic System, its Origin and Development
  • Qawa‘id al-Iqtisad fi’l-Islam ([Arabic] Principles of Islamic Economics)
  • Qur’anic Philosophy of Change (2 volumes)
  • Islamic Economy and Interest-free Banking
  • Qur’anic Philosophy of Rise and Fall of the Nations
  • Islam — a Religion of Balance and Moderation
  • Nizam Mustafa: a Message and Struggle for Change
  • Objectives of the Raising of Prophets (blessings and peace be upon them)
And many others

Works on Tasawwuf and Spirituality; around 50 works on Islamic Science of Mysticism and Spiritualism:

  • Kitab al-Ihsan
  • Reality of Tasawwuf
  • Practical Code of Spirituality
  • Obedience to Allah
  • Pearls of Remembrance of Allah
  • Love of Allah
  • Wariness of Allah
  • The Beauty of Pious Deeds
  • The Beauty of Spiritual States
  • The Beauty of Good Morals
  • Purification of Heart and Soul
  • Corruption of the Heart and its Cure
  • Our Real Homeland
  • Sin and Repentance
  • Qur’anic Categorization of People
  • Deeds and Spiritual Intoxication
  • Life — a War between Good and Evil
  • Morality of Prophets (blessings and peace be upon them)
  • The Awliya’: Companies and Narrations
  • al-Fuyudat al-Muhammadiyya
And many others

Works on Human Rights and Modern Sciences:

  • Human Rights in Islam
  • Islam on the Rights of Women
  • Islam on the Rights of Children
  • Islam on the Rights of Senior Citizens
  • Islam on the Rights of Non-Muslims
  • Islam on the Rights of the Disabled
  • Islam and Science
  • Qur’an on Creation and Evolution of Man
  • Qur’an on Creation and Expansion of the Universe
  • Islam on Prevention of Heart Diseases
  • Spiritualism and Magnetism
  • Issues of the Modern Age and their Solutions
And many others

Miscellaneous Works:

  • Islam in Various Perspectives
  • How to end Extremism and Sectarianism?
  • Our Religious Downfall and its Trifold Defence Strategy
  • Multidimensional Attack on Iman
  • The Real Concept of Jihad
  • Jihad: a Charity
  • Islamic Concept of Knowledge
  • True Knowledge: a Creative or an Interpretative Phenomenon
  • Reformable Aspects of Religious and Secular Sciences
  • The Real Base of Piety
And many others

Fatwa on Suicide Bombings and Terrorism:

Shaykh-ul-Islam Dr Muhammad Tahir-ul-Qadri issued a historic fatwa, or Islamic decree, on the vital matter of suicide bombings and terrorist attacks carried out in the name of Islam. It is regarded as a significant and historic step, the first time that such an explicit and unequivocal decree against the perpetrators of terror has been broadcast so widely. The original fatwa has been written in Urdu, and amounts to 600 pages of research and references from the Qur’an, Hadith, opinions of the Companions (of the Prophet), and the widely accepted classical texts of Islamic scholarship. The comprehensiveness and extent of the original work is meant to leave no doubt, and no stone unturned, in order to remove any possible justification for the suicide attacks that the perpetrators or their supporters may offer. Indeed, Shaykh-ul-Islam went that crucial step forward and announced categorically that suicide bombings and attacks against civilian targets were not only condemned by Islam, but rendered the perpetrators totally out of the fold of Islam, in other words, to be unbelievers. Furthermore, in what is unprecedented in recent Islamic scholarship, this work draws out scriptural, historical, and classical scholarly references highlighting the obligations of Governments of Islamic nations to deal decisively to root out terrorist elements from society. This historic work has been translated into major languages of the world.

Shaykh-ul-Islam’s Chains of Authority

His Eminence Shaykh-ul-Islam, Dr Muhammad Tahir-ul-Qadri has received a large number of authorities (asanid) and permissions (ijazat) for the transmission of knowledge of hadith, tafsir, fiqh, tasawwuf and other classical Islamic sciences from numerous great pillars of the Muslim world, widely acknowledged as the fountains of Islamic knowledge in the last century back to the classical scholars and great Imams of hadith of the past up to the Holy Prophet (blessings and peace be upon him). He has more than 300 Chains of Authority contained in two of his own thabats (reference books on his chains of authority):
  • al-Jawahir al-Bahira fi’l Asanid at-Tahira
  • as-Subul al-Wahabiyya fi’l-Asanid adh-Dhahabiyya
The following are some examples of his links to the renowned classical scholars via only one teacher:
  • He is linked to al-Imam Yusuf ibn Isma‘il an-Nabhani directly via only one teacher, his student ash-Shaykh Husayn ibn Ahmad al-‘Usayran (Lebanon).
  • He is linked to al-Imam Imdad Allah al-Muhajir al-Makki via only one teacher, his vicegerent ash-Shaykh as-Sayyid ‘Abd al-Ma‘bud al-Jilani al-Madani (who died at the age of 165 years).
  • Shaykh-ul-Islam is linked to Imam al-Hind ash-Shah Ahmad Rida Khan via only one teacher through three different routes:
  • ash-Shaykh al-Mu‘ammar Diya’ud-Din Ahmad al-Qadiri al-Madani
  • ash-Shaykh as-Sayyid Abu’l-Barakat Ahmad al-Qadiri Alwari
  • ash-Shaykh al-Mu‘ammar as-Sayyid ‘Abd al-Ma‘bud al-Jilani al-Madani
Shaykh-ul-Islam Dr Muhammad Tahir-ul-Qadri has gathered together the various fields of classical Islamic knowledge, especially the knowledge, and authorities of hadith, from famous centres of Islamic learning across the globe:

1. Authorities of the great Shuyukh of Makka and Madina

  • al-Imam ‘Umar ibn Hamadan al-Mahrasi
  • al-Imam Muhammad ibn ‘Ali ibn Zahir al-Watri
  • al-Imam Ahmad ibn Isma‘il al-Barzanji
  • al-Imam Ahmad Sharif ibn Muhammad as-Sanusi al-Madani
  • al-Imam Ahmad ibn Zayni Dahlan
  • ash-Shaykha Amat Allah bint al-Imam ‘Abd al-Ghani al-Muhaddith ad-Dihlawi al-Madani
Shaykh-ul-Islam received the authorities of the above mentioned through:
  • Muhaddith al-Haram ash-Shaykh ‘Alawi ibn ‘Abbas al-Maliki al-Makki (father of ash-Shaykh as-Sayyid Muhammad ibn ‘Alawi al-Maliki). (He had sama‘ from him in 1963.)
  • ash-Shaykh al-Mu‘ammar Diya’ud-Din Ahmad al-Qadiri al-Madani (died at the age of over 100 years)
  • ash-Shaykh Husayn ibn Ahmad al-‘Usayran (Lebanon — died at the age of 100 years)
  • ash-Shaykh Dr Farida’d-Din al-Qadri (father of Shaykh-ul-Islam)

2. Authorities of the great Shuyukh of Baghdad

  • al-Imam ‘Abd ar-Rahman ibn ‘Ali an-Naqib al-Baghdadi (Imam al-Awliya’ and Hujjat al-Muhaddithin of his era)
  • al-Imam ‘Abd as-Salam al-Muhaddith al-Afandi al-Baghdadi
  • al-Imam ‘Abd ar-Razzaq al-Bazzaz al-Muhaddith al-Baghdadi back to al-Imam as-Sayyid Mahmud ibn ‘Abd Allah al-Alusi (author of Tafsir Ruh al-Ma‘ani)
Shaykh-ul-Islam received the authorities of the above mentioned through:
  • ash-Shaykh as-Sayyid Tahir ‘Ala’ud-Din al-Jilani al-Baghdadi al-Afandi
  • ash-Shaykh as-Sayyid ‘Alawi ibn ‘Abbas al-Maliki al-Makki
  • ash-Shaykh as-Sayyid ‘Abd al-Ma‘bud al-Jilani al-Madani
  • ash-Shaykh Dr Farida’d-Din al-Qadri

3. Authorities of the great Shuyukh of ash-Sham (Syria)

  • Muhaddith ash-Sham al-Imam Muhammad ibn Ja‘far al-Kittani
  • Muhaddith ash-Sham al-Imam Muhammad Badra’d-Din ibn Yusuf al-Hasani
  • al-Imam ‘Abd al-Hayy ibn ‘Abd al-Kabir al-Muhaddith al-Kittani
  • al-Imam Abu’l-Makarim Muhammad Amin as-Suwayd ad-Dimashqi
Shaykh-ul-Islam received the authorities of the above mentioned through:
  • ash-Shaykh Husayn ibn Ahmad al-‘Usayran (Lebanon)
  • ash-Shaykh as-Sayyid Muhammad al-Fatih ibn Muhammad al-Makki al-Kittani (Damascus)
  • ash-Shaykh Dr Farida’d-Din al-Qadri

4. Authorities of the great Shuyukh of Lebanon and Tarabulus

  • al-Imam Yusuf ibn Isma‘il an-Nabhani (Imam al-Muhaddithin of the last century)
  • al-Imam ‘Abd al-Qadir ash-Shalabi at-Tarabulusi
  • al-Imam Hasan ‘Uwaydan al-Fayturi al-Tarabulusi
Shaykh-ul-Islam received the authorities of the above mentioned through:
  • ash-Shaykh Husayn ibn Ahmad al-‘Usayran (Lebanon)
  • ash-Shaykh as-Sayyid Muhammad al-Fatih ibn Muhammad al-Makki al-Kittani (Damascus)
  • ash-Shaykh Dr Farida’d-Din al-Qadri

5. Authorities of the great Shuyukh of al-Maghrib and ash-Shanqit (Mauritania):

  • al-Imam Abu ‘Abd Allah Muhammad ibn Mustafa Ma’ul ‘Aynayn ash-Shanqiti
  • al-Imam Muhammad Habib Allah ash-Shanqiti
  • al-Imam Muhammad al-‘Arabi ibn Muhammad al-‘Azizi al-Fasi
  • al-Imam ‘Abd Allah ibn Siddiq al-Ghimari al-Maghribi
Shaykh-ul-Islam received the authorities of the above mentioned through:
  • ash-Shaykh as-Sayyid ‘Alawi ibn ‘Abbas al-Maliki al-Makki
  • ash-Shaykh Husayn ibn Ahmad al-‘Usayran (Lebanon)
  • ash-Shaykh as-Sayyid Muhammad al-Fatih ibn Muhammad al-Makki al-Kittani
  • ash-Shaykh Dr Farida’d-Din al-Qadri

6. Authorities of the great Shuyukh of Yemen:

  • ash-Shaykh al-Habib Hamza ibn ‘Umar al-‘Aydarus al-Habashi
  • ash-Shaykh al-Habib ‘Ali ibn ‘Abd ar-Rahman al-Habashi
  • ash-Shaykh ‘Abd al-Qadir ibn Ahmad as-Saqaf
  • ash-Shaykh ‘Abd Allah ibn Ahmad al-Haddad
  • ash-Shaykh Hasan ibn Ahmad al-Ahdal al-Yamani
  • ash-Shaykh Muhammad ibn Yahya al-Ahdal al-Yamani
  • ash-Shaykh Isma‘il al-Yamani (author of Nafas ar-Rahman)
Shaykh-ul-Islam received the authorities of the above mentioned through:
  • ash-Shaykh as-Sayyid ‘Alawi ibn ‘Abbas al-Maliki al-Makki
  • ash-Shaykh Muhammad ibn ‘Alawi al-Maliki al-Makki
  • ash-Shaykh Dr Farida’d-Din al-Qadri

7. Authorities of the great Shuyukh of al-Hind (India and Pakistan):

  • Imam al-Hind ash-Shah Ahmad Rida Khan
  • Abu’l-Hasanat al-Imam ‘Abd al-Hayy ibn ‘Abd al-Halim al-Muhaddith al-Laknawi (Faqih al-Hind and Shaykh of Arab and non-Arab)
  • al-Imam ‘Abd al-Baqi ibn ‘Ali al-Ansari al-Muhaddith al-Laknawi al-Madani (up to al-Imam Shah Waliyy Allah al-Muhaddith ad-Dihlawi)
  • ash-Shaykh ‘Abd al-Hadi ibn ‘Ali al-Ansari al-Muhaddith al-Laknawi
  • al-Imam al-Muhaddith al-Musnid Irshad Husayn Rampuri
  • al-Imam ash-Shah Imdad Allah al-Muhajir al-Makki (a great saint and shaykh of Mawlana Ashraf ‘Ali Thanwi, Mawlana Rashid Ahmad Ganguhi, Mawlana Muhammad Qasim Nanutwi and others)
  • Muhaqqiq al-Hind al-Imam Fadl al-Haqq al-Khayrabadi
  • ash-Shaykh as-Sayyid Didar ‘Ali ash-Shah al-Muhaddith Alwari
  • Muhaddith al-Hind ash-Shaykh Muhammad Anwar ash-Shah al-Kashmiri (author of Fayd al-Bari)
  • Muhaddith al-Hind ash-Shaykh Ahmad ‘Ali Saharanpuri
  • ash-Shaykh ‘Abd ash-Shukur al-Muhaddith al-Muhajir al-Madani
  • ash-Shaykh Badr al-‘Alam Mirathi
Shaykh-ul-Islam received the authorities of the above mentioned through:
  • ash-Shaykh al-Mu‘ammar Diya’a‘d-Din Ahmad al-Madani (he died at the age of over 100 years)
  • ash-Shaykh as-Sayyid ‘Abd al-Ma‘bud al-Jilani al-Madani (he died at the age of 165 years)
  • al-Muhaddith al-A‘zam ash-Shaykh Sardar Ahmad al-Qadiri (Faisalabad)
  • ash-Shaykh as-Sayyid Abu’l-Barakat al-Muhaddith Alwari (Lahore)
  • ash-Shaykh as-Sayyid Ahmad Sa‘id al-Kazimi Amruhi (Multan)
  • ash-Shaykh Dr Farida’d-Din al-Qadri
  • ash-Shaykh ‘Abd ar-Rashid ibn Qutba’d-Din al-Qadiri ar-Ridawi
  • ash-Shaykh Dr Burhan Ahmad al-Faruqi

8. An unprecedented chain of authority:

Finally, the most unprecedented, unique, highly blessed and honoured chain of authority that his Eminence Shaykh-ul-Islam possesses is through only four Shuyukh between Shaykh-ul-Islam and the great Imams listed below:
  • Sayyiduna ‘Abd ar-Razzaq ibn Sayyiduna al-Ghawth al-A‘zam ash-Shaykh ‘Abd al-Qadir al-Jilani al-Hasani al-Husayni (Baghdad)
  • al-Imam ash-Shaykh al-Akbar Muhya’d-Din ibn al-‘Arabi (author of al-Futuhat al-Makkiyya) (Damascus)
  • al-Imam Ibn al-Hajar al-‘Asqalani, the greatest authority on hadith (Egypt)
His Eminence Shaykh-ul-Islam’s continuous chain of authority (isnad) up to the above mentioned great Imams is as under:
  1. Shaykh-ul-Islam narrates (with direct permission and authority) from ash-Shaykh Husayn ibn Ahmad al-‘Usayran (Lebanon).
  2. He narrates from ash-Shaykh ‘Abd al-Hayy ibn ash-Shaykh ‘Abd al-Kabir al-Kittani.
  3. He narrates from ash-Shaykh al-Mu‘ammar ‘Abd al-Hadi ibn al-‘Arabi al-‘Awwad.
  4. He narrates from al-Imam as-Sayyid ‘Abd al-‘Aziz al-Hafid al-Habashi. He was born in 581 (Hegira) and died in 1276 (Hegira) and lived up to 695 years. He directly studied under, and narrated from, al-Imam ‘Abd ar-Razzaq al-Jilani ibn Sayyiduna Ghawth al-‘Azam al-Jilani at Baghdad, from al-Imam ash-Shaykh al-Akbar Muhya’d-Din ibn al-‘Arabi at Damascus and from al-Imam ibn al-Hajar al-‘Asqalani at Egypt. (al-Imam ‘Abd al-Hayy al-Kittani, Fahras al-Faharis wa’l-Athbat, vol. 2, p. 928).
His Eminence Shaykh-ul-Islam has received the same authority and ijazat of transmission from another chain:
  1. His Eminence narrates from ash-Shaykh Husayn ibn Ahmad al-‘Usayran.
  2. He narrates from ash-Shaykh as-Sayyid Ahmad ibn Muhammad as-Sanusi al-Madani.
  3. He narrates from ash-Shaykh as-Sayyid Muhammad ibn Muhammad as-Sanusi.
  4. He narrates from ash-Shaykh as-Sayyid Muhammad ibn ‘Ali as-Sanusi.
  5. He narrates from al-Imam ‘Abd al-‘Aziz al-Hafid al-Habashi, who received from all of the above mentioned three great Imams.

Leading Islamic Scholars who have received ijazat (License to Transmit) from Shaykh-ul-Islam

The following is a selective list of some leading Islamic scholars who have received authority to transmit from Shaykh-ul-Islam Dr Muhammad Tahir-ul-Qadri:
  • Damascus, Syria: ash-Shaykh As‘ad Muhammad as-Sa‘id as-Sagharji (a great scholar of hadith sciences and fiqh and the author of the famous work al-Fiqh al-Hanafi wa Adillatuh. He is the grand Imam of the renowned Jami‘ al-Masjid al-Umawiyy — the Umayyad Mosque of Damascus).

  • Kuwait: ash-Shaykh al-Sayyid Yusuf as-Sayyid Hashim ar-Rifa‘i (world’s renowned scholar and ash-Shaykh of tariqa)

  • Halab, Syria: ash-Shaykh as-Sayyid Dr Abu’l-Huda al-Husayni al-Halabi

  • Damascus, Syria: ash-Shaykh Abu’l-Khayr ash-Shukri (khatib of Umayyad Mosque of Damascus and head of the famous institute of advanced hadith studies opened by al-Muhaddith al-Akbar Imam Badra’d-Din al-Hasani, called Jami‘ al-Muhaddith al-Akbar)

  • Damascus, Syria: ash-Shaykh Muhammad Nadim an-Nadman

  • Damascus, Syria: ash-Shaykh ‘Abdu’llah ‘Abd al-‘Aziz ‘Azw

  • Damascus, Syria: ash-Shaykh Husayn Muhammad Ibrahim

  • Damascus, Syria: ash-Shaykh Ahmad Qarw

  • Damascus, Syria: ash-Shaykh Mahmud ‘Abd ar-Rahman Daqqaq

  • Syria: ash-Shaykh as-Sayyid Ghiyath ibn Muhammad ‘Uthman ad-Dusuqi al-Husayni al-Qadiri ar-Rifa‘i ash-Shami

  • Baghdad, Iraq: ash-Shaykh Dr ‘Abd ar-Razzaq as-Sa‘di (Grand Mufti of Iraq prior to March 2003)

  • Baghdad, Iraq: ash-Shaykh ‘Abd al-Wahhab al-Mashhadani (a famous scholar of Islamic jurisprudence and a renowned author)

  • Cairo, Egypt: ash-Shaykh Hammadun Ahmad ibn ‘Abd ar-Rahim al-Azhari

  • Cairo, Egypt: ash-Shaykh ‘Abd al-Muqtadir ibn Muhammad al-‘Alawan al-Azhari

  • Cairo, Egypt: ash-Shaykh Yusuf Yunus Ahmad ‘Abd ar-Rahim al-Azhari

  • Cairo, Egypt: as-Sayyid Hamid Mahmud Ahmad Mahmud al-Azhari

  • Cairo, Egypt: ash-Shaykh as-Sayyid Ahmad ‘Abdu’llah Muhammad ‘Abd al-Jayyid al-Azhari

  • Cairo, Egypt: ash-Shaykh as-Sayyid ‘Abd al-Wahid Yusuf Muhammad al-Azhari

  • Beirut, Lebanon: ash-Shaykh Dr as-Sayyid Wasim al-Habbal

  • Tarim, Yemen: ash-Shaykh as-Sayyid al-Habib ‘Umar Salim ibn al-Hafiz (Hadhramaut). He is one of the most popular Arab scholars, preachers and spiritual teachers. He is the founding principal of Dar al-Mustafa al-Karim (Yemen). Shaykh-ul-Islam exchanged the asanid and ijazat with him.

  • Tarim, Yemen: ash-Shaykh as-Sayyid al-Habib ‘Ali al-Jifri. He is one of the most popular Ahl as-Sunna scholars of the Arab world. He has studied from great scholars in the Arab world and was one of the closest students of the late as-Sayyid Muhammad ibn ‘Alawi al-Maliki al-Makki. He is a famous sufi teacher of the Ba ‘Alawi Tariqa of sufism, which is widely followed in Hadhramaut (Yemen) and Hijaz (Saudi Arabia).

  • Tarim, Yemen: ash-Shaykh al-Habib ‘Ali Mashhur ibn Salim ibn al-Hafiz. He is the Imam of the Tarim Mosque, a Grand Mufti and head of the Fatwa Council in Tarim, Yemen.

  • Tarim, Yemen: ash-Shaykh Sayf ‘Ali al-‘Asri

  • Sana‘a, Yemen: ash-Shaykh Jabrayn ibn Ibrahim as-San‘ani

  • Mauritania: ash-Shaykh Muhammad al-Amin ash-Shanqiti

  • Hyderabad, India: ash-Shaykh Muhammad Amin ash-Sharif (Shaykh al-Hadith of Jami‘a an-Nizamiyya, Hyderabad Deccan, India)

  • Dhaka, Bangladesh: ash-Shaykh al-Hadith Mawlana Habib ar-Rahman Silhati

  • Bangladesh: Mawlana Ruh al-Amin, executive editor of the second largest newspaper of Bangladesh The Inqilab and he is the president of Minhaj-ul-Quran International, Bangladesh.

  • East Africa/UK: Dr ‘Irfan Ahmad al-‘Alawi. He is a university lecturer, Bar at Law, CPhil PhD, Lecturer in Islamic Theology and tasawwuf (Islamic spirituality). He is a student of ash-Shaykh as-Sayyid Muhammad ibn ‘Alawi al-Maliki (Makka). He is the executive director of Islamic Heritage and also a writer for many Islamic journals across the world. He has translated many works into Arabic, English and Swahili.

  • UK: ash-Shaykh Babikr Ahmad Babikr. He has been actively involved in ad-da‘wa in the UK since the 1970s. He studied the Islamic sciences in Sudan under ash-Shaykh Fatih Qaribu’llah.

  • Canada: ash-Shaykh Faysal ‘Abd ar-Razzaq (Imam and president of the Islamic Forum of Canada). From 1977-1986 he studied in Saudi Arabia, first at Umm al-Qura University in Makka, then at King ‘Abd al-‘Aziz University in Jeddah. He also studied at York University, Toronto, Canada. He has spoken on a wide range of Islamic topics in many countries including Canada, USA, UK, Germany, Pakistan, India, Saudi Arabia, Jordan, Turkey, Syria, Guyana, Barbados and Trinidad. He has to his credit more than one hundred titles recorded on audio and video. Ash-Shaykh Faysal is also a prolific writer of Islamic books.
And thousands from many countries, including Pakistan, Lebanon, Syria, Egypt, Yemen, Baghdad, Sudan, Jordan, UAE, East Africa, India, Bangladesh and other countries.

Significance of Isnad (chain of authority and transmission of knowledge)

  1. Al-Hakim reports through Thabit ibn Qays, that the Holy Prophet (blessings and peace be upon him) said to his Companions:

    “You (the Sahaba) are listening and receiving from me and people (at-Tabi‘un i.e. the Successors) will listen and receive from you. Then people (the atba‘ at-tabi‘in) will listen and receive from those (the Successors) who listened and received from you. Then people (the fourth generation) will listen and receive from those (the atba‘ at-tabi‘in) who were the audience and recipient of the Successors, who had listened and received from you.”
    [Related by al-Hakim in Ma‘rifa ‘Ulum al-Hadith, p. 60.]
     
  2. According to ‘Abdu’llah ibn Mas‘ud (may Allah be well pleased with him), the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and give him peace) said:

    “May Allah brighten a man who listened from us something and then passed it on to others exactly as he heard it because many a person to whom something is transmitted retains better than the person who first heard it.”
    [Related by at-Tirmidhi in as-Sunan, vol. 5, p. 34 # 2657; and Ibn Maja in as-Sunan, vol. 1, p. 85 # 232.]
     
  3. According to ‘Abdu’llah ibn Mas‘ud (may Allah be well pleased with him), Allah’s Messenger (Allah bless him and give him peace) said:

    “May Allah keep him enjoying and rejoicing who heard something from me, remembered it and kept it well in his mind and then narrated it (to others).”
    [Reported by al-Imam ash-Shafi‘i in al-Musnad (p. 240) and ar-Risala (p. 401 # 1102); and at-Tabarani in al-Mu‘jam al-Kabir, vol. 2, p. 126 # 1541.]
     
  4. According to Zayd ibn Thabit (may Allah be well pleased with him), he heard the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and give him peace) say:

    “May Allah grant him happiness who heard a tradition from me, learnt it by heart and conveyed it to others. There will be many jurists who will narrate the tradition to better jurists than themselves and there will be several others who will not be in truth jurists at all.”
    [Related by Abu Dawud in as-Sunan, vol. 3, p. 322 # 3660; and Ibn Maja in as-Sunan, vol. 1, p. 86 # 236.]
     
  5. According to ‘Abdu’llah ibn ‘Amr (may Allah be well pleased with him), the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and give him peace) said:

    “Transmit from me may it be only a verse. And there is no harm in narrating events from the Children of Israel. And he who deliberately fabricates a lie on me builds his abode in the Fire.”
    [Related by al-Bukhari in as-Sahih, vol. 3, p. 1275 # 3274; Ibn Hibban as-Sahih, vol. 14, p. 149 # 6256; and Ahmad ibn Hanbal in al-Musnad, vol. 2, pp. 159, 202, 214.]
     
  6. According to Abu Qarsafa (may Allah be well pleased with him), Allah’s Messenger (blessings and peace be upon him) said:

    “Whatever you hear from me, narrate it to others and never say anything but truth. And whoever will fabricate a lie on me for him a house will be built in Hell.”
    [Reported by at-Tabarani in Turuq Hadith man Kadhaba ‘Alayya, p. 146 # 155; and in al-Mu‘jam al-Kabir, vol. 3, p. 18 # 2516.]
     
  7. According to ‘Abdu’llah ibn ‘Abbas (may Allah be well pleased with him and his father), the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and give him peace) said:

    “Obtain knowledge and facilitate and do not complicate. And if anyone of you feels infuriated he should keep silent.”
    [Related by Ahmad ibn Hanbal in al-Musnad, vol. 1, p. 239; and al-Bukhari in al-Adab al-Mufrad, p. 95 # 245.]
     
  8. According to Abu Hurayra (may Allah be well pleased with him), the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and give him peace) said:

    “Learn the Qur’an and (the knowledge of) the shares of inheritance and teach them to the people because I am going to depart (physically).”
    [Related by at-Tirmidhi in as-Sunan, vol. 4, p. 413 # 2091; and an-Nasa’i in as-Sunan, vol. 4, p. 63 # 6306.]
     
  9. ‘Amr ibn ‘Awf al-Muzani (may Allah be well pleased with him) narrated:

    “The Holy Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace) said to Bilal ibn al-Harith (may Allah be well pleased with him): “Know.” He submitted: “O Messenger of Allah! What should I know?” He said: “Know, O Bilal.” He submitted: “O Messenger of Allah! What should I know?” He said: “He who revives of my Sunna that which ceased after me will get his rightful due as much of recompense as will be due for its practitioner without any decrease in his recompense. And he who initiates a misleading innovation disgusted by Allah and His Messenger (Allah bless him and give him peace) will incur the same sin which will be on its perpetrator without any mitigation.”
    [Related by at-Tirmidhi in as-Sunan, vol. 5, p. 45 # 2677.]
     
  10. According to Abu Hurayra (may Allah be well pleased with him), the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and give him peace) said:

    “He who sticks to my Sunna at the time of mischief and strife will get reward of a martyr.”
    [Related by Abu Nu‘aym in Hilya al-Awliya‘, vol. 8, p. 200; and Haythami in Majma‘ az-Zawa’id, vol. 1, p. 172.]
     
  11. According to ‘Abdu’llah ibn ‘Abbas (may Allah be well pleased with him and his father), the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and give him peace) said:

    “He who upholds my Sunna at the time of strife will be granted reward of one hundred martyrs.”
    [Set forth by al-Imam al-Bayhaqi in Kitab az-Zuhd al-Kabir, vol. 2, p. 118 # 207.]
     
  12. According to Abu Hurayra (may Allah be well pleased with him), the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and give him peace) said:

    “The holders of justice from among the successors will learn the knowledge of hadith. They will put an end to the extravagance of the extravagant, the fabrication of the heretic and false interpretations of the ignorant.”
    [Set forth by at-Tabarani in Musnad ash-Shamiyyin, vol. 1, p. 344 # 599; al-Bayhaqi in as-Sunan al-Kubra, vol. 10, p. 209 # 20700; and ad-Daylami in al-Firdaws, vol. 5, p. 537 # 9012.]
     
  13. Al-Khatib al-Baghdadi reports in al-Kifaya (p. 121) through ‘Abdu’llah ibn ‘Umar (may Allah be well pleased with him and his father) that the Holy Prophet (blessings and peace be upon him) said:

    “O Ibn ‘Umar! Your din is your faith. Indeed it is but your flesh and blood (it is your life). Therefore, you should be very careful about whom you are receiving it from. Receive it from the pious and the steadfast and do not take it from those who are leaning astray.”
     
  14. Our master ‘Umar ibn al-Khattab (may Allah be well pleased with him) used to say:

    “Soon there will come people who will discuss and debate with you on the Qur’anic verses which are figurative (i.e. they contain abstract and allusive meaning). So deal with them by means of sunan because the people of sunan know the Book of Allah more (than others).”
    [Related by ad-Darimi in as-Sunan, vol. 1, p. 62 # 119.]
     
  15. Al-Khatib al-Baghdadi reports from our master ‘Ali ibn ‘Abi Talib (may Allah be well pleased with him) in al-Kifaya (p. 121) who said in the mosque of Kufa:
    “Inquire about the people from whom you are receiving this knowledge (of Qur’an and Sunna). Indeed this is your din.”
     
  16. Al-Imam Muslim in the preface (al-Muqaddimma) of his as-Sahih (vol. 1, p. 8) has entitled a chapter:
    “Narration from a reliable authority and leaving liars aside is mandatory in ash-shari‘a and science of hadith in order to eliminate any doubt of perjury in narrating knowledge from the Holy Prophet (blessings and peace be upon him).”
    Following this, al-Imam Muslim entitled another chapter in the preface (al-Muqaddimma) of his as-Sahih (vol. 1, p. 14):
    “Declaration of the fact that the chain of authority is part of the din and there should be no narration except from a reliable chain of authority.”
     
  17. Al-Imam Muslim also reports from al-Imam Muhammad ibn Sirin (through his own chain), who states:

    “The science of chain of authority and narration of hadith is din itself. You should check whom you are receiving your din from.”
    [Related by Muslim in al-Muqaddima (preface) to his as-Sahih, vol. 1, p. 14.]

    This saying of al-Imam Muhammad ibn Sirin was narrated by Ibn Abi Shayba with some different words:

    “The science of chain of authority and narration of hadith is din itself. You should check whom you are receiving it from.”
    [Related by Ibn Abi Shayba in al-Musannaf, vol. 5, p. 334 # 26636]

    Al-Khatib al-Baghdadi reports these words from the Successor ad-Dahhak ibn Mazahim in al-Kifaya fi ‘Ilm ar-Riwaya (p. 121).
     
  18. Al-Imam Ibn Sirin again states as reported by al-Imam Muslim:

    “Before the fitna (civil war and political segmentation which emerged as the reason of fabrication of hadith), they never felt any necessity to ask about the chain (because all authorities before the period of fitna were undoubtedly honest, truthful, trustworthy and reliable). After this fitna had occurred they started asking the narrator to mention their chain of authority before them; and if the knowledge of din was narrated from an authority belonging to Ahl as-Sunna they used to accept his transmission; and if he belonged to Ahl al-Bid‘a they rejected it.”
    [Related by Muslim in al-Muqaddima (preface) to his as-Sahih, vol. 1, p. 15; and Tirmidhi in al-‘Ilal, p. 739.]
     
  19. Al-Imam Ibn Sirin again states as reported by al-Khatib al-Baghdadi:

    “In the early days, people never felt any necessity to ask about the chain (because all authorities before the period of fitna were undoubtedly honest, truthful, trustworthy and reliable). But when this fitna had occurred they started asking the narrator to mention their chain of authority before them so that they could accept the hadith transmitted by an authority belonging to Ahl as-Sunna and could reject the hadith transmitted by Ahl al-Bid‘a.”
    [Related by al-Khatib al-Baghdadi in al-Kifaya fi ‘Ilm ar-Riwaya, p. 122.]
     
  20. Al-Imam Ibn Sirin states:

    “(In the early days,) people never felt any necessity to ask about the chain (because all authorities before the period of fitna were undoubtedly honest, truthful, trustworthy and reliable). But in later times people started asking the narrator to mention their chain of authority before them so that they might check. If the narrator belonged to the people of Sunna, they wrote down the hadith, and if he did not belong to people of Sunna, they did not write down the hadith from him.”
    [Related by al-Khatib al-Baghdadi in al-Kifaya fi ‘Ilm ar-Riwaya, p. 122.]
     
  21. Sa‘d ibn Ibrahim narrated:

    “Nobody should narrate the knowledge of Allah’s Messenger (blessings and peace be upon him) except the reliable authorities.”
    [Related by Muslim in al-Muqaddima (preface) to his as-Sahih, vol. 1, p. 15.]
     
  22. Furthermore, al-Imam Muslim quotes from amir al-mu’minin fi’l-hadith ‘Abdu’llah ibn al-Mubarak, who states:

    “Al-Isnad (the chain of authority) is a necessary part of din. If there was no chain of authority then everyone would have said whatever he wanted to say.”
    [Related by Muslim in al-Muqaddima (preface) to his as-Sahih, vol. 1, p. 15.]
     
  23. Al-Imam Muslim elaborated further from al-Imam ‘Abdu’llah ibn al-Mubarak, who says:

    “Between us and between the people who receive from us there are pillars of reliance and these are the chains of authority.”
    [Related by Muslim in al-Muqaddima (preface) to his as-Sahih, vol. 1, pp. 15, 16.]
     
  24. Al-Imam Sufyan ath-Thawri is reported by Ibn Hibban and al-Khatib al-Baghdadi as saying:

    “The isnad is the weapon of a Muslim (who is the receiver of the knowledge). If he is not equipped with the arms, how is he going to fight (and defend himself)?”
    [Ibn Hibban, al-Majruhin, vol. 1, p. 27; al-Khatib al-Baghdadi, Sharaf Ashab al-Hadith, p. 42.]
     
  25. Al-Imam Abu Hanifa says as related by Yahya ibn Ma‘in and reported by al-Khatib al-Baghdadi in al-Kifaya (p. 231):

    “Knowledge should be received only from a transmitter who learns the text by heart and has a deep and perfect understanding of the meanings of what he is transmitting.”
     
  26. Al-Imam Abu Hanifa further says, as related by ‘Abdu’llah ibn al-Mubarak and reported by al-Khatib al-Baghdadi:

    “When someone reads the text in front of a muhaddith or an authority (to get it verified), then he is allowed to transmit from him to others.”
    [al-Khatib al-Baghdadi, al-Kifaya fi ‘Ilm ar-Riwaya, p. 303.]
     
  27. Al-Imam Malik is reported by al-Khatib in al-Kifaya as saying:

    “Be Godfearing and scrutinize the credibility of the person whom you are receiving this knowledge from.”
    [al-Khatib al-Baghdadi, al-Kifaya fi ‘Ilm ar-Riwaya, p. 124.]
     
  28. Al-Imam ash-Shafi‘i is reported by al-Bayhaqi as saying:

    “The one who accepts the knowledge from somebody without the sanad (chain of authority) is like a person carrying a bundle of wood with a snake in it and he does not know. It may bite him (anytime).”
    [al-Bayhaqi, al-Madkhal ila as-Sunan al-Kubra, p. 211.]

    Al-Imam ash-Shafi‘i is quoted by as-Sakhawi as saying:
    “He who seeks to collect hadith without chains of transmission is like the one who collects wood at night.”
    [Related by as-Sakhawi in Fatha’l-Mughith, vol. 3, p. 4.]
     
  29. Al-Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal is reported by as-Sakhawi in Fatha’l-Mughith (vol. 2, p. 69) as saying:

    “If the ijazat (license of transmission through a chain of authority) was neglected and denied, then the reliable knowledge would be destroyed.”
     
  30. Al-Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal also said:

    “Asking for the higher chain of authority (al-isnad al-‘ali) is the sunna of the righteous predecessors.”
    [Ibn as-Salah, ‘Ulum al-Hadith, p. 150; al-Khatib al-Baghdadi, al-Jam‘ li-Akhlaq ar-Rawi wa Adab as-Sam‘, vol. 1, p. 123.]
     
  31. Ibn ‘Uyayna said:

    “A hadith without any chain of transmission is nothing. Certainly the chains of transmission are a ladder of the texts by which one reaches the texts.”
    [Related by al-Khatib al-Baghdadi in al-Kifaya fi ‘Ilm ar-Riwaya, p. 393.]
     
  32. Ibn ‘Awn is reported by al-Khatib in al-Kifaya as saying:

    “I said to ash-Sha‘bi: ‘Shall I not narrate a tradition to you?’ Ash-Sha‘bi replied: ‘Do you narrate the tradition from the alive or the dead?’ I said: ‘From the alive.’ (To this) he said: ‘Do not narrate to me the traditions from the alive.’”
    [al-Khatib al-Baghdadi, al-Kifaya fi ‘Ilm ar-Riwaya, p. 139.]
     
  33. Ibn ‘Abd al-Hakam is reported by al-Khatib in al-Kifaya as saying:

    “One day I mentioned a hadith in the presence of al-Imam ash-Shafi‘i in my childhood. So he said: ‘Who has narrated it to you?’ I replied: ‘You.’ He asked: ‘Whatever tradition I narrated to you it is as I narrated to you, but beware of narrating traditions from the alive.’”
    [al-Khatib al-Baghdadi, al-Kifaya fi ‘Ilm ar-Riwaya, p. 140.]
     
  34. Ibn as-Salah has reported in ‘Ulum al-Hadith (p. 150) from al-Imam Yahya ibn Ma‘in. When he was asked about his wish, he replied:

    “(My wish contains two things:) seclusion in my house (for uninterrupted remembrance of Allah) and isnad of high ranking authorities (to receive the righteous knowledge through the shortest chain).”
     
  35. Hammad ibn Zayd is reported by al-Khatib al-Baghdadi in al-Kifaya as saying:

    “We visited Anas ibn Sirin in his disease. So he said, ‘Be Godfearing, O group of the youths, and scrutinize the credibility of the person whom you are receiving these ahadith from, because this is your din.’”
    [Related by al-Khatib al-Baghdadi in al-Kifaya fi ‘Ilm ar-Riwaya, p. 122.]
     
  36. Al-Imam Muhammad ibn Aslam at-Tusi said:

    “A short chain of transmission is in fact being close to Allah.”
    [Related by Ibn as-Salah in ‘Ulum al-Hadith, p. 151; and al-Khatib al-Jami‘ li-Akhlaq ar-Rawi wa Adab as-Sam‘, vol. 1, p. 123.]
     
  37. Al-Imam Ibn Hibban says in Kitab al-Majruhin (vol. 1, p. 89):

    “I hope that out of this Umma they (the travellers and the seekers of the knowledge of as-Sunna, al-hadith, al-athar and al-akhbar who put their efforts to differentiate between the sahih and the mawdu‘ through the verification of the isnad) will enjoy the extreme proximity of the Holy Prophet (blessings and peace be upon him) in Paradise. (This is so, because they spent their lives in a very highly esteemed service to the Holy Prophet [blessings and peace be upon him]).”
     
  38. ‘Allama ibn Taymiyya states in Minhaj as-Sunna an-Nabawiyya (vol. 7, p. 37):
    “The isnad is one of the exclusive virtuous characteristics and Allah’s great blessings on this Umma. It is also a great peculiarity of the din of Islam and it is a salient identity of Ahl as-Sunna. Ar-Rafida did not pay great attention to isnad, because they confirmed only such as accorded to their desires and the sign of a false isnad (in their eyes) was opposing their desires.”

    So, Allah created for us trusty reporters for chains of transmission and promulgation of din because both chains of transmission and promulgation are of the characteristics of Umma. None of the preceding communities of the former Prophets has passed who was granted such a high status of learning that the Prophet and his scholars would preach din by means of unbroken and uninterrupted chains of transmission between them. Allah Most High bestowed this superiority on the Umma of the Final Prophet (blessings and peace be upon him) which is the best of the communities and honoured the scholars of this Umma from the Companions down to the hadith-narrators with the proprieties of hadith. And in this Revelation: “Or some remnant of knowledge (of the bygone people in transit down the line) [al-Qur’an, al-Ahqaf, 46:4.],” there is a pointer to the chains of transmission of hadith and its narration. This pronouncement in the glory of chains of transmission is due to the narration of din and the eminent authorities from the Successors have described it as we have mentioned before in detail.
     
  39. The significance of the chain of transmitters and authorities can be further illustrated through the statement of al-Imam Ibn Maja (one of the six great Imams of as-sihah as-sitta). He has reported a hadith on the reality of iman in the preface of his as-Sunan (the same has been reported by al-Imam at-Tabarani and al-Imam al-Bayhaqi), whereby he narrates from ‘Abd as-Salam ibn Abi as-Salih Abi as-Salt al-Harawi from Sayyiduna ‘Ali ibn Musa ar-Rida, from Sayyiduna Musa ibn Ja‘far al-Kazim, from Sayyiduna Ja‘far ibn Muhammad as-Sadiq, from Sayyiduna Muhammad ibn ‘Ali al-Baqir, from Sayyiduna ‘Ali ibn Husayn from Sayyiduna Husayn ibn ‘Ali, from Sayyiduna ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib, from Allah’s Messenger (blessings and peace be upon him). At the end of the text of hadith he quotes:

    “If this isnad (chain of transmitters and authorities) is read upon a person who is insane (majnun) he will certainly be cured.”
    [Reported by Ibn Maja in as-Sunan, vol. 1, p. 25 # 65; at-Tabarani in al-Mu‘jam al-Awsat, vol. 6, p. 226 # 6254 & vol. 8, p. 262 # 8580; and al-Bayhaqi in Shu‘ab al-Iman, vol. 1, p. 47 # 16.]


    Here lies the blessings (al-barakat) of the names of the blessed persons who belong to Ahl al-Bayt and all of them are the Imams of al-wilaya (sainthood).

    The words of the Holy Prophet (blessings and peace be upon him) are always contained in the text of hadith and not in the chain of authorities; the chain of authorities only consists of the names of reliable persons who are the blessed transmitters. Al-Imam Ibn Maja has not directed towards reading the text of the hadith upon an insane person, but has rather emphasized reading the names of the transmitters, which is the chain of authorities; just invoking the names on a patient has become a spiritual treatment. This is the ‘aqida of al-Imam Ibn Maja, al-Imam at-Tabarani and al-Imam al-Bayhaqi; the same has been mentioned by al-Imam as-Suyuti, as well as by al-Imam Ibn al-Qayyim, the great and famous student of ‘Allama Ibn Taymiyya. According to all of these authoritative statements of the Imams, who are the real transmitters of din and the knowledge of hadith to us, it is clear and evident that before the substance and content one is inevitably supposed to rely on the chain and authority. These are the people who narrated the knowledge of din. If they are proven to be reliable, it is only then one would have access to the acceptance of substance and contents of the hadith. Before placing emphasis on the text, they have given all the importance to the chain. In any hadith the text is known as the matn and the chain of authority is known as the sanad or isnad.

    The text contains the message of Islam, the teachings of the Holy Prophet (blessings and peace be upon him) and the substance of the Shari‘a and the Sunna, whereas the chain consists of personalities. Reliance has been placed on the personalities, prior to the actual content. The Imams have declared the chain of these reliable personalities as a part of din. Here lies the significance of personalities in Islam — the real transmitters of the din from the Holy Prophet (blessings and peace be upon him).
     
  40. Al-Imam at-Tabarani reports through ‘Abdu’llah ibn ‘Abbas:

    “The Messenger of Allah (blessings and peace be upon him) said: ‘Oh Allah! Bestow mercy on our khulafa’.’ The Companions asked: ‘Who are your khulafa’?’ He (blessings and peace be upon him) replied: ‘Those who will come after me and narrate my ahadith and my sunna and transmit them to the Umma.’”
    [Related by al-Imam at-Tabarani in al-Mu‘jam al-Awsat, vol. 6, p. 395 # 5842.]
That is why the Holy Qur’an in sura al-Fatiha has commanded us to follow in the footsteps of the blessed personalities in order to achieve al-hidaya (guidance) and al-istiqama (steadfastness):
“Show us the straight path, the path of those (personalities) upon whom You have bestowed Your favours.”
[al-Qur’an, al-Fatiha, 1: 6, 7.]
Reliable and blessed personalities have been declared to be symbols of al-hidaya and it has been made compulsory to identify and follow them. On the other hand some people have been made symbols of ad-dalala (misguidance) and the wrath of Allah. The Qur’an has commanded us neither to follow them nor to be in their company. As stated in sura al-Fatiha:
“Not of those who have been afflicted with wrath, nor of those who have gone astray.”
[al-Qur’an, al-Fatiha, 1: 7.]
The Holy Qur’an has defined the “blessed people” in sura an-Nisa’:
“And whoever obeys Allah and His Messenger (blessings and peace be upon him), they are the people who shall be in the company of those (spiritual dignitaries on the Last Day) whom Allah has blessed with His (special) favour: Prophets (an-Nabiyyun), the Truthful (al-awliya’ and as-siddiqun), the Witnesses (of Truth [ash-shuhada’]), and the Pious ones (possessing Allah’s nearness – as-salihun). And how excellent these companions are!”
[al-Qur’an, an-Nisa’, 4: 69.]
Shaykh-ul-Islam is one of the chosen and blessed people of Allah among the community of the Prophet’s khulafa’ (vicegerents). He is the man of reliable authority and one of the great authentic transmitters of the Prophet’s (blessings and peace be upon him) knowledge to the Umma from whom scholars of East and West, both Arab and non-Arab, have derived benefit, who come to him to receive ijazat (permission) and isnad (authority) as an Imam of ‘ilm in this century. He is the one who received his permission and authority from the greatest scholars of their time, and he delivers his permission and authority to hundreds of great scholars of his time. Being the author of one thousand books and a transmitter of the Holy Prophet’s (blessings and peace be upon him) knowledge through five thousand orations and narrations, he has revived numerous Islamic sciences, including ‘ulum al-Qur’an, ‘ulum al-hadith, ‘ilm al-fiqh, al-‘aqida, at-tasawwuf, and ideology through his reconstructive efforts of Islamic thought and philosophy in the modern age. He is the revivalist of the present century. As the Holy Prophet (blessings and peace be upon him) stated, reported by Abu Hurayra (may Allah be well pleased with him):
“Indeed Allah raises in the Umma at the beginning of every Islamic century one that revives the din for this Umma.
[Related by Abu Dawud in as-Sunan, vol. 4, p. 109 # 4291; al-Hakim in al-Mustadrak, vol. 4, pp. 567, 568 # 8592, 8593; and at-Tabarani in al-Mu‘jam al-Awsat, vol. 7, p. 272 # 6523.]
The scholars and authorities serving the din of the Prophet (blessings and peace be upon him) are in hundreds and thousands who render their services according to their position and status, but the mujaddid is only one in a century; if there is to be another, he will be in another part of the world. Shaykh-ul-Islam was born in 1951 (1370 Hegira) and started his revivalist work in 1981 (1401 Hegira), exactly at the beginning of the 15th Islamic century, by founding Minhaj-ul-Qur’an. The door of Prophethood has been completely closed in all respects and no Prophet will ever come after the raising of the Holy Prophet (blessings and peace be upon him) himself. The Holy Prophet (blessings and peace be upon him) stated that before him every Prophet used to succeed another; with his raising, the chain of Prophethood became closed. From now he will be succeeded by the khulafa’ [Narrated by al-Bukhari in as-Sahih, vol. 3, p. 1273 # 3268; and Muslim in as-Sahih, vol. 3, p. 1471 # 1842.]. The khulafa’ are the mujaddidun, al-awliya’, and the al-‘ulama’ ar-rasikhun. The mujadidun are the revivalists and a mujaddid receives blessings directly from the Holy Prophet (blessings and peace be upon him) in addition to his other chains of receiving knowledge. A hadith of the Holy Prophet (blessings and peace be upon him) reported through Sa‘id ibn al-Musayyab, which is quoted by al-Imam Ibn ‘Abd al-Barr [Related by Ibn ‘Abd al-Barr in Jami‘ Bayan al-‘Ilm wa Fadli-hi, vol. 1, pp. 102, 191, 192 # 169, 379.], indicates that the transmitter of knowledge who revives the din is the direct recipient of blessings of the Prophets and spiritually linked with them. That is why the practice of isnad and ijazat has been continuously and emphatically observed and transmitted since the first century of Hegira (period of followers) up to the present time by the great Imams, authorities and the high ranking scholars of the Umma.
Every textbook requires some competent teacher who can interpret its true meanings and the correct implications of the text. It is pertinent to note that if one suffers from a physical ailment, treatment will not be sought from someone who has just collected knowledge from books of medical science. Rather a professional doctor who has studied the medical sciences under competent professors and doctors will be asked for assistance and treatment. The severity of the disease will dictate the required competency level of the medical practitioner. Similarly, one needs to question how it is possible to rely upon a man, for information and spiritual guidance, who has just collected his knowledge through reading several books and websites and has never received the knowledge through a proper chain of authority. Thus, following the same sunna, some of the asanid (chains of authorities) of Shaykh-ul-Islam have been mentioned above.


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