Artificial Radioactivity

Artificial Radioactivity

Artificial Radioactivity

Sometimes radioactivity created artificially in elements that are called as artificial radioactivity. Artificial radioactivity can be created in two ways.
  1. Artificial transmutation
  2. Induced transmutation
Artificial transmutation
The conversion of one element into another by artificial means is known as artificial transmutation. It first observed in 1919 by Rutherford during the bombardment of alpha particles on the nucleus of nitrogen to form oxygen isotope and proton.

7N14 +2He4 8O17 +1H1
Later in 1932 the discovery of neutrons by James Chadwick was also an application of artificial transmutation in which he used the bombardment of alpha particles on the nucleus of beryllium to form neutron and carbon nucleus.

4Be9 + 2He4 6C12 + 0n1
Artificial transmutation can be done by using several particles like; alpha particles, neutrons , deuteron and protons. For example,
  1. 4Be0 + 2He4 6C12 + 0n1
  2. 94Pu239 + 2He4 94Cm242 + 0n1
  3. 9F19 + 2He4 10Ne22 + 1H1
  4. 7N14 + 2He4 8O17 + 1H1
  5. 26Fe59 + 2He4 29Cu63 + –1e0
  6. 15P31 + 1H1 16S31 + 0n1
  7. 6C12 + 1H1 N13 + γ
  8. 4Be9 + 1H1 4Be8 + 1H2
  9. 8O16 + 1H1 7N13 + 2He4
  10. 13Al27 + 0n1 12Mg27 + 1H1
  11. 8O16 + 0n1 6C13 + 2He4
  12. 92U238 + 0n1 92U238 + λ
  13. 8O18 + 0n1 9F19 + –1e0
  14. 3Li6 + 1H2 3Li7 + 1H1
  15. 32As75 + 1H2 32As76 + 1H1
  16. 4Be9 + γ 4Be8 + 0n1

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